Immediately we denote: speech is not the innate ability of man. The newborn does not have it, but there is a need for adult care and, as a result, a need for communication.
Speech is only a way to satisfy it. Already from two months, the baby begins to practice pronouncing vowels, attracting the attention of adults, communicating about their sensations and emotions. If parents ignore these calls, speech activity decreases, development slows down.
Speech skills are formed, but at a later date, which adversely affects the overall psychological development of the baby. He cannot fully communicate, learn the world, learn, he is rejected by other children. Worst of all, mental retardation slows down due to a lag in speech; sometimes this process is irreversible.
A child can be silent for many reasons. It happens that he simply has no need to talk.
This happens if the parents fulfill the wishes of the baby even before he voices them, or ask him questions and answer them themselves. But most often it is a matter of an unfavorable home climate: adults rarely talk with a small person, because “he still doesn’t understand anything,” they do not voice their actions.
Or they say, but they themselves have a poor vocabulary, short phrases, a lot of grammatical and speech errors prevail.
There are also internal factors. The key one is the slower rate of maturation of nerve cells in the speech areas of the brain, due to the pathology of pregnancy, childbirth, and diseases of the baby in the first year of life.
Cranial brain injuries or neglected frequent falls can also affect speech formation. Often the reason lies in reduced hearing, what parents will learn only by taking up problems with speech.
In some cases, the baby does not speak because of the genetic factor, in such families there is a lag in almost all generations, or a general developmental delay.
The process of speech development begins from the first days of life and lasts several years. At 1.5 months, the child begins to listen to the voices and rejoice when he hears friends, gradually mastering the vowels. Approximately in half a year already with might and main babble.
In parallel, the kid accumulates passive vocabulary, at the age of up to a year he is able to understand from 50 to 100 words.
In a year and a half – learns to understand the speech of others, says the first words. The child begins to realize that combinations of sounds denote certain objects and that with the help of the word you can achieve your goal.
In the period from two to six years, it becomes more and more perfect and similar to the speech of adults. In two or three years, it acquires a coherent character, simple phrases appear, which are gradually becoming more complex.
At first, the child makes many grammatical errors, distorts the sounds, but with time the situation is evened out. Normally, by the age of five, a person uses all forms of sentences, his speech is completely understandable to all adults, and not just to those close to him. By six, he can already retell texts and describe events.
Vocabulary is at least 2000 words.
The earlier the diagnosis of speech developmental delay is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment will be. There are signs that allow to suspect that something was wrong in the initial stages. A visit to a specialist should be considered if the child:
older than 3 months does not liven up, after hearing the speech of an adult, does not show an emotional reaction to the voice;
older than 8 months does not babble;
over 1.5 years old, does not say simple words like “mother” or “give”; it cannot show the objects in the picture in response to the question of where the object is located;
over 2 years old has a vocabulary of just a few words and does not replenish it, and is also not able to follow the instructions of adults: “Lift the doll and give it to me”;
over 2.5 years is not a two-word phrase;
over 3 years old says that only the closest people can understand it.
A pediatric neurologist, a psychiatrist or a speech therapist may conduct a primary examination, but as a rule, one consultation is not enough – you will have to visit all three specialists. Before making a diagnosis and prescribe treatment, they must find out the reason for the delay. Be prepared for a detailed conversation about how pregnancy and childbirth proceeded, how the baby developed in the first months.
Anamnesis better to collect in advance. Only after talking with the parents will the diagnostics begin: they will conduct several tests with the child in order to establish the correspondence of speech development to age standards, to understand how each side of speech is developed.
First, test the skills of understanding the baby, and only then – speaking. This is a sound pronunciation, and vocabulary volume, and the ability to grammatically form a speech.
The list varies depending on the age of the child. So, in children of senior preschool age, they will also evaluate the pithiness and connectedness of speech, the ability to conduct a dialogue, retell what has been heard.
If the main cause of the delay is neurological, and cerebral dysfunctions are to blame, the emphasis will be on medical treatment and procedures. The baby will be prescribed medications to improve brain function, they will recommend to undergo a course of transcranial micropolarization in order to activate the activity of the speech brain zones.
If the matter is the lack of communication with adults, parents will have, first of all, to work on themselves and reconsider their approaches to education.
And in fact, and in another case, the child must attend classes with a speech therapist. A specialist will help develop not only speech, but also attention, memory, thinking, imagination. Without this, it is extremely difficult to overcome the delay.
Articulation exercises and exercises for the development of fine motor skills are used. In the cerebral cortex, the divisions responsible for the development of articulatory and fine motor skills are close to each other and functionally interconnected.
Stimulation of one leads to activation of the other.
Not only specialists, but also parents should deal with the child. Even if the baby’s speech develops in a normative way, it will not be superfluous to regularly do exercises with him on the development of fine motor skills, articulation gymnastics.
- Look at the speech therapist techniques and regularly practice with the baby at home to secure the result. Occupations should not be long that the crumb did not overwork.
- For the development of fine motor skills play with him in cubes, designer, collect mosaics and sculpt from clay. Let the kid button his own buttons and tie his shoelaces.
- Remember the good old finger games (“Forty-white-sided”, “Ladushki”), they stimulate different points and nerve endings on the hands of the baby. Finger massage is not less effective, it can be done from birth.
- Do not forget about counting and outdoor games, in which the driver or the participants should read the poetic text. They develop in children the ability to navigate in space, change the pace of movements, move rhythmically, work with the intonation of the voice and correctly place the emphasis.
- Formulate the rules of any game, tasks, instructions as clearly as possible, there is nothing wrong with repeating several times.
- Remember: speech therapy classes, games are only part of the correction process. It is much more important to constantly communicate with the baby, voice their actions and at the same time monitor the correctness of speech. There will be no adequate speech environment, there will be no result.