The language, the most mobile organ of our body, is a complex tangle of muscles. Since its work is controlled by the brain, when malfunctioning of the central nervous system, babies often have problems with speech and swallowing.
It also has many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerve endings, which allow this organ to perform very complex and important work.
Figuratively speaking, the tongue of both the shvets, the reaper, and the igruts on the dude: participates in the first stage of digestion, when the chewed food must be mixed and, having formed a ball out of it, sent and pushed into the throat, gives people the opportunity to distinguish bitter from sweet, sour from salty, feel the texture and temperature of the food, as well as talk.
On the mucous membrane of the tongue there are many taste and tactile papillae (receptors). The task of the first is to recognize the taste of what got into the mouth, and “report” on the results of the study to the brain.
That is why doctors recommend chewing food thoroughly: only in this case, the impulses have time to reach the brain and it gives a signal to develop certain digestive enzymes. With the help of the last products useful elements are absorbed – vitamins and minerals.
For each of the basic four tastes, there are special receptors on the surface of the tongue. Those that are at the very tip react to the sweet, the lateral edges of the anterior part of the tongue feel salty, the lateral edges of the back of the tongue are sour, and the root of the tongue (the place where it is attached to the hyoid bone and lower jaw) is “responsible” for the bitter.
Least of all papillae on the back of the tongue. For this reason, if you need to give your child a bitter pill, put it on this part – you can deceive sensitive receptors: a child, after swallowing the medicine before the corresponding signal reaches the brain, will not know what he ate.
Thanks to the tactile nipples, we understand what exactly fell into our mouth: liquid tea, thick ryazhenka or rough potatoes, and we distinguish between cold and warm or hot.
The form and appearance of the language can tell a lot about the state of health of its owner. That is why on examination the pediatrician will surely ask the child to open his mouth wide and show his tongue. If there are no problems, the tongue will be wet, pink, clean, without bloom and pigmentation.
Nipples will be almost invisible. If the doctor notices bloom in one color or another, this may be a signal that the baby has health problems.
After all, the plaque is formed due to the active reproduction of bacteria.
Most often in babies on the tongue, the inner surface of the cheeks and in the sky there is a white patina. In infants, it may be similar to milk residues, and then this is the first sign of developing thrush. So called one of the forms of fungal diseases of the mucous membranes, skin and internal organs – candidiasis, or candidal stomatitis.
It is caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. The appearance of the name “thrush” is due to the fact that during the disease the mucous membrane of the affected organ becomes covered with a whitish bloom, which resembles curdled milk, and a cheesy discharge is formed.
Since thrush can be the first manifestation of a disease, the child must be shown to the pediatrician. The disease is well treated with local antifungal agents.
But only a doctor should determine the specific drug and treatment regimen.
Sores that appear in the tongue are a sign of viral stomatitis. It can also be provoked by injury caused by the child biting his tongue or burning it with hot soup.
Usually, this kind of trouble passes in a couple of days.
Small bubbles at the tip of the tongue and gums – the result of the “attack” of herpes viruses. After a while, the bubbles burst and small sores, similar to millet, appear in their place.
At the same time, a white bloom appears at the base of the tongue, and the baby complains that it hurts him to swallow and chew.
With viral stomatitis, the baby may have a fever. In this case, there is a possibility that a bacterial infection has also joined the virus infection.
Address as soon as possible to the pediatrician. The doctor will recommend antiviral and local antibacterial agents – rinses, sprays, absorbable tablets.
Raspberry tongue is one of the symptoms of scarlet fever. In the first days of the disease, it is covered with a thick white bloom, which passes by the fifth day, and the tongue becomes bright red and grainy due to the fact that the nipples greatly increase in size. It turns out that “raspberry” is both the color of the tongue and its appearance, which, when scarlet fever resembles raspberry berry.
The crumbs will surely rise in temperature, he will complain of severe pain in the throat. Immediately call a doctor: scarlet fever is fraught with complications.
The doctor will prescribe antibiotics, recommend gargles and throat sprays, as well as a means to reduce the temperature.
Yellowish bloom on the tongue – the result of accumulation of dead skin cells or food debris on its surface. This is observed in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – dysbacteriosis and lack of digestive enzymes, as well as problems with the biliary tract and liver.
Brown plaque on the tongue appears due to violations of the intestinal microflora and in chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes fungal infections also occur in the same way. In both cases, consultation with a pediatrician or a gastroenterologist is necessary.
The doctor will prescribe an ultrasound of the abdominal organs, bacteriological examination of feces and its analysis on helminths.
If the tongue, lips and nails turn blue, it means that the body is experiencing an acute lack of oxygen. This happens in diseases of the lungs and heart.
Urgently call a doctor!
Dry tongue speaks of dehydration. At the same time, very young children uneasily move and open their mouth; those who are older are often asked to drink. Such symptoms are observed in cases of disturbances in the work of the salivary glands, for example, due to the high temperature associated with viral infection.
The tongue can become dry even when the crumbs of the nose and in a dream he is forced to breathe through the mouth. Dehydration can also cause intestinal infections, due to the fault of which the body loses a lot of fluids due to vomiting or severe diarrhea.
Water your baby as often as possible. When vomiting, diarrhea and high temperature, to determine the tactics of treatment, you must call a doctor.
If your baby has a stuffy nose for a long time, show it to the ENT specialist to rule out adenoids.
Whitish “islands” may appear in the language, which later transform into pinkish spots forming an intricate pattern. Moreover, the shape of the spots can vary daily.
Since the spots resemble the image of the continents in a geographical atlas, the language is called “geographical”.
The pattern is formed due to desquamation of the epithelium. Such phenomena usually do not cause discomfort.
But if the sloughing gets worse, then there is a burning sensation, tingling, or tingling on the tongue, especially while eating. Sometimes there are disorders of taste.
Since the layer of mucous membrane is thin on lesions, they can easily become infected, and then the tongue becomes covered with cracks. Such a condition is called desquamatative glossitis (“desquamation” is peeling, and “glossitis” is inflammation of the tongue). Experts believe that this condition arises due to malnutrition of the tissues of the tongue as a result of a lack of vitamins, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, blood-forming organs or prolonged use of antibiotics.
In infants, this disease is usually associated with teething. In any case, you need to consult a doctor.
We know how important it is to maintain oral hygiene, and we pay a lot of attention to brushing your teeth. But about the fact that it is necessary to maintain the same purity and language, we often forget, although he also needs care and care.
The language must be constantly cleaned, because different microorganisms, including pathogens, are deposited on it. Together with food, they can get into the gastrointestinal tract and become one of the causes of health problems.
To clean the tongue, you can use a regular toothbrush with soft or semi-soft bristles. Special scrapers are sold in pharmacies, which are a plastic nozzle with a tip in the form of a scapula, as well as scrubber brushes: on one side they have bristles, and on the other – rubber embossed stripes.
Gently and effectively enough, you can even clean the tongue using the nozzle on the irrigator (a device that cleans the oral cavity by supplying a jet of water under pressure) – a tip in the form of a spoon. Like a toothbrush, the tongue cleaner should be changed every 2-3 months.
Clean the tongue with smooth movements from the root of the tongue to its tip. The procedure is carried out daily, regardless of whether the visible bloom. Periodically, the scraper or brush is rinsed with water to wash off the accumulated deposits.
Then rinse your mouth with water and rinse thoroughly with a scraper or brush.