This trimester lasts twelve weeks (the term is considered to be from the date of the first day of the last menstruation) and is recognized as key: it is now that the organs and systems of the child are being laid. Under the influence of hormones, the body of the future mother is rebuilt and is preparing for a new and important mission.
While fertilization and attachment of the embryo to the prepared wall of the uterus, no one, even the most experienced, a doctor can determine the occurrence of pregnancy. But the mucous membrane, which is usually rejected and goes out with menstrual blood, will remain in place and will subsequently ensure the development of the baby.
Therefore, the first thing that makes you think about your situation will be a delayed menstruation. But there will be other symptoms. If you woke up an unrestrained appetite or pulled on something salty, constantly sleepy, and the mood is more like a ride on a roller coaster: you want to laugh, but you do not have the strength to hold back tears – make the necessary calculations.
The hormone progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary, at the 5th-8th week reaches the peak of its development.
Because of this, pregnant women become irritable and get tired quickly, they develop swelling and skin pigmentation occurs. Your suspicion will be confirmed by a special blood test for hCG – chorionic gonadotropin, a hormone produced by the chorion – the future place for children.
In the early stages, a pharmacy test for detecting the same hormone in the urine may give a false negative result.
Mama. There is an opinion that a woman is able to feel the onset of pregnancy, but since these data are not scientifically supported, they can be easily attributed to the super-thin spiritual organization of the fair sex.
To feel the advancement of sperm to the fallopian tubes, as well as the very moment of conception, when the paternal and maternal genes merge, is physically impossible.
Kid. The resulting zygote – by the way, the sex of the child is determined at the moment of conception (the egg carries the X chromosome, the sperm cell is Y. X + X = girl, X + Y = boy) – it begins to break up on the way to the uterus, which takes three days.
The accumulation of cells — morula — moves to the site of implantation for another 2–3 days, and the embryo (blastocyst), not yet associated with the mother, is fed by substances accumulated in the egg cell. On the sixth day, he sinks into the prepared inner wall of the uterus.
However, inflammatory processes (chronic basal endomyometritis) can cause the blastocyst to attach to the internal pharynx or cervix. Since the place of implantation coincides with the place of formation of the placenta, placenta previa may occur.
That is why all women planning a pregnancy are strongly recommended to undergo a full medical examination.
Mama. The waist has not changed yet, but the breast has noticeably increased due to the increase in the level of female sex hormones.
Kid. Three types of germinal layers form various tissues and organs: from the endoderm, the lungs, the liver, the digestive system, and the mesoderm, the skeleton, the muscular system, the blood vessels, and the heart.
From the ectoderm develop skin, hair, tooth enamel.
Mama. Doubt in the occurrence of pregnancy does not remain.
A woman in this period increases nausea, her breasts swell and become painful, the areas of the nipples darken. Vaginal discharge may increase due to blood rush to the increasing uterus.
Kid. Distinct spinal cord and neural tube are prototypes of the spine and spinal cord. The liver begins to produce blood cells, and the brain controls muscle movements and heart function.
The thymus gland is formed – thymus, the most important organ of the immune system. The head takes the familiar outlines. By the 6th week, the umbilical cord is finally formed – the cord by which the baby is connected with the mother
Mama. A mucus plug is formed in the cervix of the uterus, which will come out just before delivery.
Kid. The eyelids begin to cover the eyes, protecting them from light and dryness. An inner ear is formed, an outer ear develops, jaws emerge, teeth beginnings appear.
But the most important thing is that the child starts to move, although the mother does not feel it yet. He looks like an adult: his face acquires certain features, mimicry develops. The body reacts to touch, the heart beats, the stomach produces gastric juice, and the kidneys function.
Muscles contract under the influence of impulses from the brain. By blood, you can determine the Rh affiliation.
Mama. The skin becomes smooth and smooth, and the hair – shiny.
A characteristic yellowish vaginal discharge may appear.
Kid. His height reaches 4 centimeters, weight – about 2 grams.
The formation of external and internal genital organs. And he already knows how to swallow!
Mama. The uterus increased in width by about 10 cm and rose into the abdominal cavity.
The heart begins to beat more often at a few beats per minute to cope with the increased blood circulation.
The baby grows and sucks a finger from time to time. In the period of wakefulness he trains muscles: he turns his head, opens and closes his mouth. Scarce hears and sees: he covers his ears with his hands, if there are harsh sounds from outside, and tries to protect himself from a ray of light directed into his eyes.
This is possible due to the formation of the vestibular apparatus: it helps to navigate in space.
The sooner you visit a gynecologist at the antenatal clinic, the better. During the initial treatment, the doctor will conduct a manual study to determine the size of the uterus (at 6 weeks it will be the size of a chicken egg, at 8 – with a female fist, at 12 – with the head of a newborn), will ask about the date of the last menstruation with which the mucous membrane begins to be prepared. childbirth, register and assign a survey program.
Medical specialists. In the I – the beginning of the II trimester, you need to visit an otolaryngologist, an ophthalmologist, a dentist and a therapist (the latter must come with the results of the ECG).
If the future mother has chronic diseases, an obstetrician-gynecologist can refer, in addition to an endocrinologist, an allergist, a cardiologist.
For 9 months, you will need to pass a certain number of tests, otherwise you will not be given an exchange card for the maternity hospital (without it they will only be accepted for the infection).
What tests will the doctor write out the directions in the first trimester?
- Blood type and Rh factor.
- Clinical blood test.
- Blood chemistry.
- Blood test for sugar.
- Blood test for HIV, Wasserman reaction, hepatitis B and C.
- A blood test for spontaneous infection (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes).
- Coagulogram (analysis of blood coagulation system).
- Prenatal screening (double test for hormone levels of hCG and AFP).
- Blood test thyroid stimulating hormone (responsible for the activity of the thyroid gland).
- General urine analysis.
- Gynecological smear.
- Bacteriological culture from the cervical canal.
- Smear on urogenital infections.
- Ultrasound. By the end of the first trimester, an ultrasound examination should be done so that the doctors can make sure that the pregnancy is developing normally and also make sure that the baby has no chromosomal abnormalities (the most common of them is Down syndrome). For this purpose, the thickness of the child’s collar fold is measured. Measurements of this parameter are recommended for everyone and are mandatory for women at risk: age 35 years and more, chromosomal abnormalities in the family, closely related marriage, miscarriages, radiation before conception. For maximum accuracy of the result, it is recommended to take a blood test for the double test on the same day as the ultrasound scan. A special program will calculate the degree of risk based on the results of the research, and if something will alarm the doctor, a woman will be recommended an additional study – a chorion biopsy.
The meaning of the word “toxicosis” does not need to be explained at first glance. But the doctor will say that this condition, when vomiting happens 8–10 times a day, a woman has difficulty eating and loses weight.
Vomiting once or twice a day is a normal phenomenon that will pass by the beginning of the 14th week, when the placenta will become a barrier between mother and child, and the body will “get used” to hormonal shaking. For now it is better to eat small portions, but often; in the morning in bed eat salty cracker or suck a slice of lemon.
If you worked at the gym before, continue training in the same mode, if not – it’s time to sign up for the pool, of course, after consulting with your doctor. If your job is related to hazardous production, dyes and chemicals – think about premature vacation, because these weeks are key in the development of your future baby.
Faints are also possible – it is very dangerous for those who travel a lot. No matter you feel – park the car, lie down on a bench so that your head is below the level of your heart, drink water and wait for the nausea to pass. Try to stay away from stuffy and smoky rooms.
Pain in the lower abdomen is also not uncommon. Sip can because of the growing uterus: then you need to lie down comfortably, insert a candle with papaverine into the anus and wait.
If the pain persists, call the ambulance.
Spotting is another reason to call an ambulance: they occur in women with an irregular cycle on the days of the expected menstruation. If it is the fault of the incorrect position of the branching chorion, they will prescribe you soothing and rest, if there is a threat of miscarriage, they will prescribe the appropriate therapy (antispasmodics and hormones) and bed rest.