First of all, it is useful for parents to know how the child’s vision should develop normally, because then it will be possible to notice violations in time and consult a doctor. Be prepared for the change to occur quite quickly.
So, if a newly born child only distinguishes between light and darkness, then after only a few days he already sees the obscure outlines of objects, and on the blurred outline of his mother’s face he sees spots on the place of the eyes and the mouth. A week-old crumb reacts to bright light by constricting the pupils and closing the eyelids.
Starting from 2–3 weeks, the baby tries to stop his gaze on a rather large object that is 25–30 cm away from him. At this point, the so-called “physiological strabismus” may appear on the crumbs. Do not be afraid, because it is a variant of the norm.
At 1 month, the baby is able to stably fix the gaze on the eyes of an adult. At 2–3 months, the child is already watching the bright toy with two eyes at a distance of 50–60 cm, watching it with eyes in all directions: up, down, left, right.
At about the same time, the crumb begins to recognize the mother and other family members from a distance of 2–3 meters: he smiles, pulls the arms, puts his legs together. Eye movements become coordinated.
Physiological strabismus by 6 months must pass.
In six months, the baby knows how to translate a glance from a near object to a distant object and back, without losing sight of them. If the toy approaches his face too quickly, he starts blinking.
The child is already considering his reflection in the mirror, and if he needs to see the object, he will take it in his hands and bring it to his eyes.
In 8−12 months, the baby is actively looking for objects that disappear from his field of view, and his expression changes with the facial expression of adults. The child confidently distinguishes “his” from “strangers” and willingly goes on hands only to his relatives.
In order for the child’s vision to develop harmoniously, it is necessary to think in detail about the lighting of the nursery. Since the baby sees worse than adults, the need for daylight is much greater. Based on this window, the rooms where the baby spends the most time should ideally look east or southeast.
In addition, such localization will minimize the artificial lighting, from which the eyes quickly get tired. But it is not necessary to refuse completely from additional illumination. Artificial lamps should be at least three.
The main role will play a chandelier. Its power should not exceed 60−100 watts. Ceiling lamps are better to choose such a configuration so that the light does not diffuse downwards, but upwards, towards the ceiling.
Additional lighting may be created by a wall lamp, a floor lamp or a table lamp, and for a quiet atmosphere before going to bed will be a night light equipped with a dimmer control. In this ceiling all lights should have a matte surface.
It is better to install wall and floor models far away from the crib, ideally to the left of it, so that the light does not fall on the face of the baby.
Incandescent or energy-saving equivalents giving a yellow or white glow are best for children. LED or fluorescent models will not work.
The first ones create a light that is narrowly focused and unnatural for the human eye, while the second ones flicker, which is why the vision is strained more.