Myopia, or myopia, occurs for two reasons. If corneal deformity (refractive myopia) has led to it, then there is no threat of loss of vision during pregnancy and a woman can give birth in a natural way. The situation is different with the diagnosis of axial myopia.
In this case, a prerequisite for caesarean section is a high probability of retinal detachment – the inner lining of the eye. Its symptoms are as follows: a veil first appears before the eyes, beyond which almost nothing is visible, and after a while complete blindness occurs.
In a person with normal vision, the diameter of the eyeball is 22–23 mm. With axial myopia, the eyeball is stretched.
Even with a slight deficit of diopters, its diameter is already 35–36 mm. Together with the eyeball, the retina also stretches, causing tears (microcracks) to appear on it. These processes lead to impaired blood supply in the retina, its dystrophy and detachment.
During childbirth, the situation is exacerbated. Strong physical exertion during attempts can provoke retinal detachment.
By the end of the second trimester, the vision of a pregnant woman may weaken. This happens with refractive and axial myopia.
The prerequisite is a violation of the diet with early toxicosis. As a result, the body does not have enough vitamins and trace elements. Since the human visual system is very vulnerable, a slight magnesium or vitamin A deficiency is sufficient for visual impairment. If myopia is caused by curvature of the cornea, visual impairment is compensated for after delivery.
With axial myopia, this will not happen, and the loss of even 2 diopters can lead to cracks in the retina. Having found them, the doctor prescribes laser coagulation. During this procedure, the tears in the tissue are “sealed”, and the retina itself is tightly pressed against the choroid of the eyeball.
Such treatment is indicated on all periods of pregnancy and even on the eve of childbirth. The only contraindication for the appointment of coagulation is increased blood pressure.
Sometimes, future mothers, despite the threat of retinal detachment, aggressively seek to give birth on their own. This desire is worthy of respect, but in order to maintain capacity and help the child, he must be abandoned. With any tactics of natural childbirth in the second period, the woman will not be able to avoid strong physical exertion, and it will lead to an increase in blood pressure.
When the baby’s head sinks to the pelvic floor, the contractions weaken, but the attempts begin – reflex contractions of the muscles of the diaphragm and the abdominals, pushing the baby out. In order for this process to take place as quickly as possible, considerable labor is required from the woman in labor. With the most effective attempts, a woman has to strain her muscles so much that her blood pressure can increase to 170/110 mm Hg. Art.
And while there is a high probability of retinal detachment. So to refuse a cesarean section in this case is unwise.