Generally recognized cause of multiple pregnancy is heredity, especially through the mother. This means that twins are more common in families where the mother, or father, or both parents have twin brothers and sisters.
The probability of repetition of twins increases in a generation, that is, if a grandmother once had twins, the granddaughter can go the same way.
Often, multiple pregnancies occur in women who have been prescribed hormonal agents to treat infertility or in preparation for artificial insemination. The fact is that these drugs stimulate the release of the egg in the middle of the cycle, and, if the dose of the drug is too large for a woman, not one but several eggs come out of the ovarian follicle at once.
In addition, the birth of twins and triplets depends on the age of the expectant mother: the probability is higher if she is over 35 years old. Over time, the release of the egg (ovulation) in a woman does not occur in every cycle – this is normal.
As a result, unsold hormones that affect ovulation accumulate and are released during the next cycle, stimulating the release of several eggs.
A multiple pregnancy occurs when the sperm fertilizes several eggs, in which case we are talking about a rabbit double (if 2 eggs are fertilized) or, if two embryos develop in a fertilized egg, about the same twin. More often than other types of multiple pregnancies, twins are found, and two-fold – 2 times more often. A boy and a girl, two boys or two girls are born.
These kids can always be distinguished as sisters and brothers. Each of them has its own placenta, from which comes its own chorial membrane (up to 16 weeks, the chorion is called the placenta), and the amniotic membrane, inside which are the amniotic fluid and the baby.
Twins (identical twins) develop from a single fertilized egg, which is then divided in a special way. They are always same-sex, have the same blood group and Rh factor, the same hair and eye color.
These children are so similar that even their parents cannot always distinguish between them.
Identical twins always have a common placenta and, therefore, a common chorial membrane. As for the amniotic membrane, it can be different or common for everyone.
In the latter case, the babies do not share anything, they swim in the amniotic fluid together. If each of them does not have its own shell, then they can “cling” to each other while moving along the birth canal.
In this case, the doctors will offer the expectant mother to make a cesarean section before the onset of labor.
During pregnancy, twins, triple load on the body of the future mother increases several times, depending on how many babies she wears. Unfortunately, this means that complications during this pregnancy are more common.
The most typical of these is anemia, when hemoglobin levels decrease in a woman’s blood.
In this case, obstetricians recommend a future mother a diet rich in proteins, vitamins and medications that contain iron.
Every third woman faces the threat of termination of pregnancy: due to the fact that in the uterus there is not one, but several babies, its walls become overstretched. Growing babies, their placenta with membranes and amniotic fluid in their greater than normal pregnancy, weigh on the area of the isthmus of the uterus.
Then the cervix opens, and there is a threat of premature birth.
For women awaiting the appearance of twins, triplets, the regime is especially important. As the term of childbirth approaches, the expectant mother needs to lie more (preferably on the side, so as not to squeeze the inferior vena cava with a heavy uterus), during the day three or two hours to rest.
However, planning a day, do not forget that walks in the fresh air are very useful for both mother and kids. It is worth remembering about the supporting uterus bandage below – it will be easier for you to walk.
If the future mother begins to be disturbed by pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, the strain of the uterus, you should not stay at home. It is wiser to apply to the hospital as soon as possible, only there it will be possible to stop the beginning preterm labor, in order to give the little ones more growth.
Gestosis (late toxicosis of pregnancy). Signs of this complication are swelling in the legs, then on the arms and face, the appearance of protein in the urine, and an increase in blood pressure.
To treat preeclampsia is only in the hospital, so when the first disturbing symptoms appear, the expectant mother needs to see a doctor.
Twins and triplets are often lagging behind in physical development, this happens in almost half the cases. In this situation, you need to go to the maternity hospital, where the kids are “fed up” and examined.
It is proved that in case of multiple pregnancies, the “aging” of the placenta occurs earlier, and, apparently, then the babies want to be born into the world. By this time they are ready for independent living, their organs are sufficiently developed, although in weight and length these babies are about 2 weeks behind.
In most cases, twins, twins and triplets are born ahead of the time set by nature – at the 34-37th week of pregnancy.
If the twin pregnancy proceeds normally, the expectant mother will be offered to come to the maternity hospital for a period of 36–37 weeks of pregnancy. At this point, with the help of an ultrasound examination, the doctor will determine the degree of “aging” of the placenta.
Most births occur prematurely for a period of 34–37 weeks, or even earlier. At this point, babies in the uterus can take different positions: longitudinally (vertically) with their heads down, longitudinally with their buttocks down, longitudinally, but one lies with the head down and the second with the buttocks or vice versa.
It happens that one child lies longitudinally, and the second transversely (horizontally) or vice versa, or both babies are transversely arranged. More often (in 90% of cases) both babies lie longitudinally, and in almost half of the cases, both head down – this is the most favorable option.
In some cases, specialists decide to make a cesarean section. This happens if:
– in a woman who becomes a mother for the first time, the baby has taken a pelvic position;
– the first child of twins or both babies are transverse;
– triplets, quadruples, and so on are expected.
The birth of babies through the birth canal requires attention from doctors. Due to the fact that the uterus is overstretched, labor usually proceeds slowly, water is poured before it is laid, labor can weaken, and the expectant mother can be tired.
The first paves the way the baby, whose biased part, head or ass, is lower to the beginning of labor. The biggest load falls on him. After the birth and separation from the mother of the first baby, the doctor determines the position of the second, listens to his heartbeat.
During this time, the uterus contracts and covers the second child. Then the doctor conducts a vaginal examination, opens the bladder of the second child (by the way, the woman does not feel this), and the birth process is given to its natural course.