Spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is the termination of pregnancy and the birth of a fetus before the expiration of 22 weeks, when it is still not viable. This, unfortunately, does not happen so rarely, and usually nature itself decides what kind of pregnancy will take place and which one will be interrupted.
If this happens in the early stages of carrying a baby, modern medicine will not be able to help with anything.
Doctors believe that in the early stages (up to 12 weeks) the pregnancy is interrupted due to a mistake of nature, the consequences of which she is trying to correct. Unborn children most often and should not have been born because their development stopped or went the wrong way and they were initially unviable.
Why is it so difficult to determine. This could be due to a violation of chromosome division during the formation of an egg or sperm cell, chromosomal shifts, gene mutations – a lot of reasons, and often even very detailed genetic research does not answer the questions that arise.
Such cases cannot be prevented, but many others, which can provoke a spontaneous abortion at a later time, can be avoided if you consult a doctor in time to determine their cause. The prescribed treatment usually helps to bring the baby to the appointed time and give birth to a healthy child.
In 85% of cases of miscarriage in the early stages of carrying a baby are explained by insufficient attachment of a fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus. The reason for the remaining 15% is in the woman herself. These include:
Genetic imbalance in the fetus. In the first weeks of pregnancy, the laying of all the organs of the future man begins, and for this you need 23 healthy chromosomes from the future mother and the future father.
If a “breakdown” is found in one of them, for example, a mutation, the chromosome will be recognized as incapacitated and a miscarriage will occur.
Hormonal disorders. Hormones are responsible for the vital activity of the female body. Wrong ratio can lead to miscarriage in the early period.
This can happen due to the lack of the hormone progesterone, which is responsible for the development of pregnancy. Miscarriage for this reason occurs before the 10th week of pregnancy.
After 10 weeks, the danger disappears because the baby begins to receive progesterone through the placenta. The culprit of spontaneous abortion is becoming an excess of male hormones.
Intrauterine disorders. Tumors of the uterus or polyps also interfere with the normal development of the embryo, which, expanding, leave no room for the development of the fetus. Unfavorable coincidence of circumstances and contribute to sexually transmitted infections: syphilis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, etc.
An ectopic pregnancy, when the fertilized egg is not fixed in the uterus, can also cause miscarriage. After all, the embryo will die in the first 3 months due to lack of space.
In order to learn about such a pregnancy in advance and, having made an abortion in time, to avoid complications, you need to get registered with the antenatal clinic for pregnancy as soon as possible.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases of other internal organs. The cause of miscarriage in the early period can be any disease that causes a temperature rise above 38 ° C. Usually, intense fever is accompanied by intoxication of the whole organism, so that it is unable to keep the embryo.
Immunological factors. Sometimes in pregnant women there is such a complication as rhesus conflict. It occurs if the embryo from the father inherits the negative Rh factor, and the mother has the Rh factor positive.
In this case, the woman’s body perceives the future baby as something alien and starts to reject it.
In addition, a woman should understand that the age of the expectant mother is of great importance. The risk of miscarriage increases dramatically after 35 years.
So, in a 33-year-old future mother, the probability of miscarriage is the same as that of a 24-year-old. By age 35, the risk increases to 5%, and to 40, to 40%.
This is due to violations in the process of ovulation, which can no longer be avoided. Chronic illness of a woman, such as hypertension (hypertension) and diabetes mellitus, increases the risk of miscarriage.
The best prevention of such an adverse set of circumstances is planning a pregnancy and regular visits to the gynecologist while carrying a baby. When planning a pregnancy, future parents undergo a comprehensive examination. According to his results, it is clear who of the couple and in which particular treatment he needs.
With the help of hormone therapy, you can eliminate the excess of male hormones, compensate for the lack of progesterone and even reduce the severity of Rhesus conflict. In the later stages, an immunoglobulin injection saves the situation.
Tumors are eliminated surgically, infections – with the help of drug therapy.
In the early stages of pregnancy, women may also be given vitamins that support pregnancy and reduce the chance of miscarriage, for example, folic acid.
These symptoms do not always indicate that there is a threat of miscarriage. But it is better to urgently see a doctor if:
- pain syndrome occurs. Sometimes spontaneous abortion is completely painless. But more often, the threat of miscarriage can be signaled by emerging or disappearing pain in the lower back or lower abdomen. Only a doctor will be able to accurately determine its cause and understand whether it is possible to try to save the pregnancy. In most cases, if you start treatment at this stage, the pregnancy can be saved;
- bleeding from the genital tract, which increase with movement. After that, the woman usually feels dizzy and complains of weakness. If you immediately seek medical help, you can try to save the pregnancy. Usually, doctors offer hospitalization in the gynecological department. You should not refuse it, although sometimes the treatment is carried out at home;
- the uterus does not grow, standard signs of pregnancy disappear: the breast does not increase, fetal movements do not feel.
Can bed rest help in such cases?
There is no evidence that strict bed rest helps preserve pregnancy. It is also not proved that the cause of miscarriage can be exercise.
But in any case, women who are at risk of miscarriage, it is necessary to reduce physical activity, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Can I have sex during pregnancy?
If there is a threat of miscarriage, sex, of course, is contraindicated, because when exposed to the genitals in the woman’s body, oxytocin is released, a hormone that stimulates uterine contraction. But if the pregnancy passes without complications, sex by doctors is welcome.
According to statistics, after one miscarriage, a woman has about the same chance of having a healthy child as the woman who has never had a miscarriage. After two consecutive miscarriages, the probability of a successful pregnancy is 70%, after three miscarriages in a row, the woman successfully carries out the baby with a 50% probability.
Chances are greatly increased if the cause of the miscarriage is determined and appropriate treatment is given.