Often during pregnancy a woman is faced with a choice: to take or not to take medicine. On the one hand, she must carefully monitor her health as never before, but on the other hand, any medications that enter the future mother’s body can affect the child, who is very vulnerable during this period. That is why the only universal advice that can be given to all expectant mothers: never self-medicate.
Before you buy any drug, even seemingly innocuous vitamins, be sure to consult your doctor. Only he can determine when the benefits of taking the medicine outweigh the likely risk.
In the very first days of pregnancy, a woman can take medicine without knowing her condition. Doctors believe that in this case it is not necessary to worry. If the egg is fertilized and the pregnancy has come, then the baby is fine.
If there were any abnormalities caused by drugs, the sperm and egg would not merge. But the further tactics of a woman’s behavior are necessarily discussed with the doctor.
The decision is made in each case individually, taking into account the category of medicine, the duration of its admission and dosage.
But from the 3rd week of childbearing, when the intensive laying of all structures of the future little man begins, the risk of damage (in a scientific sense – teratogenic effect) is very high. So, in the first trimester, medication should be taken only when absolutely necessary and only if prescribed by a doctor after consulting with him.
The future mother should also be aware that at this time even “harmless” vitamins can negatively affect the future child if consumed in large quantities. For example, vitamins C and PP in doses exceeding the average daily, can cause spontaneous abortion, and with an excess of fat-soluble vitamins A and D there is a risk of developing developmental defects of the central nervous system, eyes and skeleton.
Beginning with the second trimester, these vitamins are safe.
Due to the teratogenic effect in the first trimester, it is also dangerous to take aspirin, analgin, such antihypertensive (that is, lowering blood pressure) drugs such as capoten and Enap, diuretic drugs and trichopol (metronidazole). Complications are also observed when taking tetracycline.
The second half of pregnancy is considered safer in this regard, since the future baby’s main organs and tissues are already formed and a placenta has formed, which, although not fully, detains substances harmful to the baby.
Healthy pregnant women usually do not need medication. Ladies who have chronic diseases, it is better to consult with your doctor about the planning and the possibility of pregnancy.
After all, in no case should the treatment be interrupted: a progressive disease can adversely affect the health of the baby.
If you warn the doctor that you are going to have a child, even before conception, he will be able to determine how an “interesting situation” will affect the course of a chronic illness, and pick up other drugs that will not harm the little man. Usually this happens if the future mother has asthma, allergies, diabetes, stomach ulcers, hypertension, heart problems.
When a woman becomes pregnant, two specialists will have to pick up the drugs: the doctor who is treating the underlying disease and the obstetrician-gynecologist leading the pregnancy.
You can not refuse drugs even if the pregnancy proceeds with complications or a few previous attempts to endure the baby ended unsuccessfully. In this case, medications are prescribed that help the child grow and develop. It can be a means of relaxing the uterus or delivering nutrients to the future of the karapuzu, as well as expanding blood vessels and improving blood circulation in the placenta.
We can talk about drugs that regulate hormonal processes in a woman’s body, prevent premature birth, or help light crumbs to open up when birth is planned ahead of time.
Both in the first and in the second case one should not be afraid of taking medicines, since the benefits of taking them are many times greater than the risk for the future mother and her child.
What does the doctor focus on prescribing this or that medicine to a pregnant woman? He usually relies on data from medical literature and statistics, his experience of using certain drugs in the treatment of expectant mothers, and also takes into account how likely the teratogenic effect is.
It helps to calculate the classification of drugs according to the degree of safety during pregnancy. Depending on this, all drugs are divided into 5 groups.
Affiliation of a drug to a particular group must be indicated in the instructions for it.
Preparations of group A are completely safe for the baby throughout pregnancy, as confirmed by research. Alas, there are practically no medicines that can be unconditionally attributed to this group. Category B includes drugs that, when used, either had no teratogenic effect at all, or the complications observed in animal studies were not found in children whose mothers took these drugs.
These are, for example, water-soluble vitamins, microelements, heartburn remedies, herbal laxatives and anti-ulcer drugs. The effect of the drugs of group C is either insufficiently studied, or when they were tested on animals, negative consequences were noted, but no tests were conducted on humans.
However, the potential benefits outweigh the risks. These include magnesium sulfate in solution, some antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides), antifungal agents (for example, nystatin), such laxatives as immodium, drugs for lowering pressure (for example, atenolol). As a rule, those drugs that are recommended by doctors to expectant mothers belong to groups B and C.
In some very serious situations, the doctor may recommend a drug from group D. Although there is information about their negative impact on the unborn child, the doctor relies on his own experience when he recommended the medicine to expectant mothers and was without complications. In addition, the risk from the use of much less than the expected benefits.
Kapoten and Enap, antidiabetic agents and antibiotics such as tetracyclines and chloramphenicol remain in this category.
Preparations of group E in connection with the proven teratogenic effect in pregnant women are contraindicated. The risk of taking them far exceeds the benefits.
Such remedies are, for example, medicines for the resorption of gallbladder stones.
When, because of health problems, the expectant mother turns to doctors, she must warn them about her situation. This should be done even if you just came to put a seal on the tooth.
In this case, the doctor will be able to choose the most safe, but nonetheless effective drugs.
In many situations, folk remedies can come to the rescue. For example, for colds, tea with honey and raspberries, which, by the way, contains natural substances similar in effect to paracetamol. Used for acute respiratory infections and homeopathic medicines permitted during pregnancy (attention: not all!) And local antiseptics that do not have a general or systemic effect on the entire body.
It is possible to find out the names of specific drugs at the doctor, it is necessary to consult with them about their use.
At temperatures above 38.5 ° C, the doctor may prescribe paracetamol preparations. They have not only antipyretic, but also analgesic effect.
It is not necessary to refuse to accept them, since high fever is dangerous, including for the unborn child.
If the cold is accompanied by a cough, the choice of expectorant and mucolytic agents should be approached very thoughtfully. It is impossible to independently select and take even herbal cough syrups without consulting a specialist.
After all, some medicinal plants can increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.
As for such frequent problems in future mothers as constipation, then you should not hurry with taking laxatives. It is better to pay attention to whether there are enough vegetables and fruits in the diet, and not to neglect products with a laxative effect – beets, apricots, dried apricots, prunes and fresh kefir.
The use of antimicrobial agents during the carrying of a baby deserves special discussion. Indeed, not all women heal their teeth, chronic tonsillitis and genital infections before pregnancy.
If the future mom found any infection, it is impossible to do without antibacterial agents. But it should be remembered that not all of them are prohibited for pregnant women.
Although the drugs cross the placenta, penicillins usually do not harm the baby. Macrolides are also relatively safe – azithromycin, josamycin, which are used, for example, in the treatment of chlamydia detected during childbirth. In any case, there is no information about their adverse effects on the mother’s developing mother.
In this case, the treatment is carried out after the 20th week.
Trichopolum (metronidazole) should not be taken in the first trimester, as there is information about developmental disabilities in children whose mothers took this medicine in the early stages. For the same reason, tetracyclines are not recommended.