We are fully able to reveal this secret – with the help of Olga Parshikova, a neonatologist, head of the department of newborns at the Klinikov Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic. V.F.
The future mother and her baby are one. They live in the general rhythm both during 9 months of pregnancy, and during childbirth.
The signal to the beginning of this process is given by the child – normally the generic mechanisms come into effect only when all the systems of the baby are ripe and he is fully ready for independent living. Naturally, situations are different, and sometimes a child is forced to hurry up with the birth of some external circumstances (for example, health problems of the mother). We will talk about how natural childbirth should occur, when everything is in order with the baby and his mother.
So, when the child is ready to be born, his endocrine system gives a signal about this with the help of hormones, and in the mother’s body, preparation for childbirth begins. From now on, the task of the woman is to help the baby enter a new life.
After all, childbirth for childbirth is an important process of adaptation to life outside the mother, with a different temperature, pressure, light, sounds, sensations. It depends on how correctly the baby goes through all the stages of labor, whether it will easily adapt to unusual conditions.
By the way, for this reason, the “kesaryat” kids, who were abruptly “taken out” from the usual conditions, find it harder to adapt to the new situation.
At the initial stage, the baby moves from the uterus to its opening neck and enters the narrow part of the small pelvis. In order for a baby to be healthy, this movement must be unhurried – which is why it normally takes as long as 6–8 hours.
During labor, the baby and mother work synchronously: the muscles of the mother’s uterus contract and press on the child, causing him to move downward, while the crumb is “collected”, as it were, by pressing legs and handles to itself; his heartbeat quickens, adrenaline is released. To make this serious work easier for the crumbs, wise nature has provided a number of measures. For example, to relieve a child from unpleasant sensations helps the natural painkiller – hormones endorphins (they act so effectively that a little one can sleep all the birth).
And it is possible to alleviate the pressure of the uterus muscles on the baby’s body thanks to a pillow from the amniotic fluid surrounding the child in the fetal bladder. When the crumb enters the narrow space between the bones of the pelvis, a protective pad forms on his head – doctors call it a generic tumor.
It occurs due to the fact that the subcutaneous fatty tissue on the back of the head and on the crown swells, and the resulting seal protects the child’s brain from pressure.
During pauses between contractions, the whole family rests. Mom takes a breath, and the crumb in her stomach can stretch and suck a finger.
During the attempts of the mother it is especially important to help your baby properly. If a woman is too nervous, her muscles contract more and the pressure on the baby increases, and the oxygen to it is less.
A small shortage of air is also experienced in the case when a mother is too “laid out” at the first stage and she has no strength left to push.
Before the birth of the baby, there is less and less time left: usually the second stage of labor takes about an hour. Helping the child, the woman will, as obstetricians say, “compel” him.
The muscles of the uterus and abdomen make strong squeezing movements (this is the effort), and the pressure on the baby is much stronger. Because of this, the crumb is even more compressed – and not in vain: he has to go through the narrowest section – the pelvic cavity.
Hardest shrinks the widest part of the baby’s body – the head. The soft bones of the skull are found one on top of the other, and because of this, a crumb can be born with an extended or oblate head. “Consolidated” and the body of the baby, especially the chest. And here the amniotic fluid helps the baby: as if a buffer, they make his movement to the “exit” softer and safer.
As soon as the baby’s head comes out, the most important part of the work will be behind him – shoulders, arms, torso and legs will appear much faster.
The beginning of a new life the baby meets with a loud cry. This is a natural (as doctors say, reflex) reaction of his body to a sharp change of conditions. First of all, it is cold, because the temperature of the amniotic fluid is 37–38 ° C, and outside, in the delivery room, it is no more than 24 ° C.
Secondly, on a bright light: let’s not forget that for all 9 months the child lived in complete darkness. But, more importantly, the cry – this is the answer to the first breath of the baby, annoying unaccustomed to this lungs and airways of the child.
The deeper the breath, the louder the little cries. At the same time, thanks to this, fetal fluid comes out of the lungs, filling them before birth.
So that the newborn baby calms down, it is immediately placed on the mother’s chest, and the baby, hearing the sound of her heart, immediately calms down. The first drops of colostrum are dropped into the baby’s mouth and allowed to hold the nipple.
Immediately after birth, the baby cannot yet suck, and on the first day he does not need it. A few drops of colostrum, rich in nutrients and protective substances, serve as a small food, help to protect against infections and colonize its intestines with beneficial microorganisms.
As soon as the baby is born, it enters the caring hands of the midwife and the neonatologist. The newborn is immediately placed on a sterile diaper under a warm lamp so that it does not freeze due to the temperature difference.
The crumb takes his first breath and screams at the top of his voice, and the midwife cuts off his umbilical cord. Then she dries the body of the child with napkins, removes particles of mucus, blood, amniotic fluid from the skin and puts a clean baby on the breast of the mother. Following this, the child is examined by a neonatologist and records data about his condition at the 1st and 5th minute of life – he is rated on the Apgar scale.
The baby is wiped with sterile oil, a clip is placed on the umbilical cord, albumin is dropped into the eyes, and in girls the genitals are treated with a disinfectant solution. The final touch – the baby is dressed in sterile underwear and passed into the hands of his mother.
Immediately after the birth, the baby’s body begins to vigorously free itself from the traces of the “past life.” Scarce sneezes, clearing the nose of mucus; sprinkles the amniotic fluid, which he swallowed in his mom’s life; makes his first “big” toilet.
Within a few hours, the baby’s birthmark subsides in the baby, and the head assumes a normal shape.
Organs and systems of the child gradually learn to work in the new mode: breathing is established, the heart changes its structure (after all, now the blood circulation process does not occur through the placenta, but independently). Birth opens up a lot of new abilities in the baby. He begins to hear and see – the crumb was able to do so even before his birth, but only now the visual and auditory images have become really clear and loud.
The uncharted world gives the crumbs new sensations, because now it is surrounded not by warm water, but diapers and feels a lot of tender touches, among which he unmistakably recognizes the most important – my mother’s.