Prolapse is the displacement of the uterus, its cervix, the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina, appendages, and the rectum and bladder into the lumen of the vagina or beyond. Contrary to popular belief, the disease occurs not only in older women, but also in young mothers.
It is difficult to treat, therefore it is necessary to engage in its prevention.
In 60–80% of cases, genital prolapse is accompanied by urinary incontinence, which happens during stress – during coughing, sneezing, physical and emotional stress, and in a normal situation.
The uterus, ovaries and tubes are in the pelvic cavity in limbo due to ligaments and peritoneal sheets. Under the influence of gravity and increased intra-abdominal pressure, they can be lowered, but the pelvic diaphragm – muscles and dense connective-woven fascia layers, are inhibited in layers.
As soon as the muscle tone weakens, and the connective tissue layers stretch, the corresponding organs can sag. The degree of prolapse depends on which layers of muscles and fascia are damaged.
The most serious problems arise when the deepest layer is affected – the muscle lifting the anus.
As a rule, a woman feels discomfort and heaviness in the small pelvis or in the perineum, there can be discomfort when walking, sometimes back pain, especially when straining. Urinary control is often difficult – incontinence or urinary retention occurs.
It happens that a woman has difficulties with the act of defecation: constipation or incontinence of the stool and gas begin, traces of stool can be found in underwear. Among the warning signs of difficulty and pain of sexual intercourse.
In addition to numerous genera, genital prolapse can be triggered by overweight, excessive exercise, bowel dysfunction and lung diseases. When the latter increases the pressure in the chest and, accordingly, in the abdominal cavity, and the muscles, experiencing increased stress, lose their tone.
Similar problems may arise from the innate, genetic inferiority of connective tissue. This is indicated by a high degree of myopia, varicose veins, congenital heart defects, etc. In addition, numerous births (4 and more), complications in them, birth of a child weighing more than 4000 g, perineal tears, episiotomy can provoke genital prolapse.
The pelvic muscles experience a great deal of stress during pregnancy, and during labor, under the pressure of the head of the newborn, they stretch and remain in this state for a long time. That is why prevention in the late postpartum period is important – Kegel gymnastics.
It is important not to lose time: it is effective only for 2 months after delivery. Special exercises to relax and strain the muscles of the pelvis can be done unnoticed by others in any setting.
To solve the problem, several “approaches” during the day are enough (10–15 minutes each).
Prolapse is detected during a routine examination on a gynecological chair. Sometimes, if adjacent organs are affected, an examination by a urologist or a proctologist is recommended. The illness develops over many years and when it becomes noticeable, it is difficult to treat.
The most effective method is considered surgical, although after surgery there may be relapses. Pregnancy after such an intervention is possible, but will have to give birth with a cesarean section.
At low degrees of prolapse, a woman can be recommended by obstetric rings or caps that are inserted into the vagina in order to support the pelvic organs and evenly distribute the load on the muscles and ligaments. Used and hormone replacement therapy.