The first thing parents usually ask is when dysgraphia is found in schoolchildren: “Is my child underdeveloped?” I don’t think that it is underdeveloped. He just didn’t have some brain functions.
Usually, smart, cute children come to the reception. But they write with some strange, incredible mistakes, and they write either with a flourish or very small, while the words climb into the fields, slip from the line. Their notebooks are red from teacher corrections.
The rules are taught, but to no avail. Often do not like the written types of work.
High school students try to write in short sentences, younger students learn a letter for a very long time.
These are the main signs of dysgraphia – partial writing disorder or difficulties in mastering writing skills (if we are talking about a younger student), the main symptom of which is the presence of persistent specific mistakes. The occurrence of such errors in pupils of a comprehensive school is not associated either with a decrease in intellectual development, or with severe impairment of hearing and vision, or with the irregularity of schooling (I.N.
It is incorrect to speak about dysgraphia in preschool children, because they only master written language at the age of 7-8. At 6 years old, we can only assume that the child is at risk and engage in prevention. At risk are:
- children with a general underdevelopment of speech;
- children who, in 2-3 years, had a delay in speech development;
- children who have problems with memory and attention;
- if the child is left-handed or retrained left-handed;
- if the child has a head injury;
- if by seven years violations of the sound pronunciation are not corrected;
- if a child is too early, at the age of 6, went to school, and in the family they are intensively trying to spur the child’s intellectual development, ignoring the natural rates of physiological and psychological development. Or, on the contrary, if the child grew up in a socially disadvantaged environment, where the opportunity to develop was naturally limited;
- often ill (especially in early childhood), weak, sickly child;
- a child in whose family there have already been cases of dysgraphia.
The reasons for dysgraphia are many. It only seems that writing is very simple – heard and recorded, saw – and wrote off.
Pen in paper, memorize the rules and apply. But reading and writing is an artificial and relatively recent acquisition of civilization.
There are people who still do without them, and there are people who have a wonderful mind, but are helpless in front of a pen and paper.
Normally, before mastering a letter, a person needs to master language analysis and synthesis, to be able to differentiate sounds by ear, to pronounce them correctly. The formation of the lexical-grammatical aspect of speech, spatial representations, developed visual analysis and synthesis are obligatory.
When one of the functions is “lame” or not formed, then there are violations of writing.
There are several classifications dysgraphy. But most often it is divided into 5 types:
1. Articulatory-acoustic form of dysgraphia.
The child writes as he hears. No wonder it is recommended to school to correct all the shortcomings of sound pronunciation.
If this is not done, problems may arise with the letter. For example, a child replaces in speech “p” with “l”.
And instead of writing “mouth” – “scrap”, instead of “powder” – “poloh”. Or, if the sound is completely absent in speech, it can completely skip this sound.
For example, write “koshun” instead of “kite”.
2. Acoustic dysgraphic form
A child can pronounce all sounds cleanly, but at the same time replace letters denoting phonetically similar sounds. The letter most often mixes pairs of letters “dt”, “bp”, “f”, “ff”, “rc” or “ssh”, “ff”, “ h-psh ”,“ ch-tb ”,“ ts-t ”,“ ts-s ”.
3. Disgraphing on the basis of violation of language analysis and synthesis
Most often occurs in children suffering from disorders of writing. In this form of dysgraphia, children miss letters and syllables, rearrange them, do not finish words, write together prepositions or separately prefixes. Sometimes you can find such a violation as contamination: parts or syllables of different words merge into one word.
For example, “krumbok” – crab sticks.
4. Agrammatic disgraphia
As the name implies, is associated with the underdevelopment of the grammatical structure of speech. There are no grammar rules for such a child.
Coordination of nouns and adjectives, nouns and verbs (“Little Squirrel galloping”, “warm blanket”) suffer.
5. Optical dysgraphia
The elements that make up the letters are few: basically, they are sticks, circles, hooks … But they are combined in different ways in space, forming different letters. A child who has not sufficiently formed visual-spatial representations, visual analysis and synthesis, it is difficult to catch the differences between the letters.
He will add an extra stick to the “T”, then “Sh” will not add a hook. If the child does not catch the subtle differences between the letters, it will certainly lead to difficulties in mastering the outline of the letters and to the wrong image in the letter.
Often the child has a mixed form of dysgraphia. In this case, when analyzing the written work of the child, we find signs of two or three types of dysgraphies (or even all five).
If the school hints that it would be nice to visit a speech therapist, do not delay the visit. Visit the speech therapist should, and in the event that you notice the listed violations of the student.
Independently to fix them is hardly possible. Correction of dysgraphia is a difficult matter; a professional must do this.
At the reception to the speech therapist be sure to grab the student’s notebooks in Russian, a couple of notebooks in mathematics, ideally, even his drawings. Speech therapist will be interested in literally everything: how the childbirth and motor development of the child proceeded, how his speech developed, whether family members did not have speech problems.
The speech therapist asks the child to read the text, retell it and write a small dictation.
Most likely, the consultation of an experienced neuropsychologist will be required. Classes with this specialist will help to develop inter-hemispheric connections that are not sufficiently formed in young disgrafics.
Correction depends on the violations found. Attend classes will have at least a year, or even a few years.
It all depends on the child, on the severity of his problems. In my opinion, in simple cases it is necessary to engage in about two years.
And then you need control and supporting classes with a neuropsychologist, speech therapist or an experienced teacher.
There was such a point of view that dysgraphia is rather a different way of thinking. Sometimes it is possible to achieve excellent results, but most often some features of the letter are preserved, although they manifest themselves in an adult only against the background of fatigue, illness, and some distracting factors.
Work with this problem is necessary. You shouldn’t put pressure on a child, consider him a loser due to difficult relations with dictation: this will not help the cause.
Many great people wrote with wild mistakes and became scientists, actors, millionaires, public figures, even writers, although dysgraphics usually avoid writing-related activities. If you can not cope with the monster, you can try to tame it.
Helps, as already mentioned, a comprehensive work with a neuropsychologist, speech therapist, neurologist, teacher. And first of all – the friendly and warm atmosphere at home.
There are some things that can spur a little brain work. It is useful from an early age to love games that develop a sense of rhythm, auditory and visual attention, short-term memory. Well, if a child likes to find paths in labyrinths, differences in similar pictures, draw the missing details, play word games such as “Chain of Words”, “Spell Five Words”, “Erudite”, “Hangman”, compose and solve charades and anagrams, crosswords, invent texts for a particular letter.
Moreover, such games are now being sold in the form of convenient and ready-made cards.
Play two, in turn becoming leading. The leader conceives the word, which is necessarily known to the second player, and draws empty cells on the sheet according to the number of letters in the hidden word. When the scheme is ready, the player calls the letter.
If it is in a conceived word, it is written in the corresponding empty cell. If there is no word in it, the presenter writes this letter on the same sheet of paper aside and begins to draw the gallows. When the gallows is ready, begins to draw a little man.
Each loss is drawn one detail of the picture – the leg from the stool, part of the body. They play until the word is guessed or the drawing of the little man on the gallows is completed.
The winner is the one who guessed the word before the gallows drawing was completed.
You can replace the gallows with something else. For example, to draw for losing a sad face, for a well-chosen letter is a funny one. Or for each loss to draw one detail from the pirate, and for successful answers – the crown.
Who guessed the word, the prince or princess.
Russian version of the English game Scrabble. Sold in children’s stores, in departments dedicated to board games.
There are several players. Before the game starts, everyone randomly takes seven chips with different letters. The task is to make a word out of your letters.
The game activates vocabulary, develops observation, allows younger players to learn new words.
Players take turns calling words. The word must begin with the sound that the previous word ended in: Mashina-Avtobus-SankI-Needle-AvtomaT-TigR-Chamomile … You can limit the words to one topic — call only animals, only plants, and so on.
Expands vocabulary and trains memory, at the same time trains thinking. You can play on the way from school, in line, in transport, at a bus stop, soaping your hands, riding in an elevator, doing anything when your head is empty.
It is better to play together. Someone suggests: “Name five … flowers!”, “Five names of girls, animals, types of transport, minerals”, etc. The tasks can be complicated: “Name five foreign names of girls”, “Name five wild animals of Africa”, “Five garden flowers.”
Offer the task necessary, given the age and capabilities of the child.
It is very useful to change places with the child. In all games, offer the child the role of lead, encourage him to give tasks to an adult.
This adds confidence, not always because mom can list, for example, all the characters of a favorite cartoon or the names of cars. Do not be afraid to make mistakes.
We must teach the child that to err is not scary. And you can learn by example.
If you always keep a pen and a notebook with you, then in the car, in the queue at the clinic, at the bus stop, on a walk, in the country, if it started to rain and you can’t walk, you can also play various useful games. For example, write a long word and make other words out of it: “The train is a shooting gallery, three, whale, varnish, and so on.”
The one who comes up with more words wins, using only the letters of the given word.
You can try to turn one word into another. The word is written, the task of the players, replacing one letter in one move, turn it into another word.
Wins the one after whom the word change is no longer possible. You can complicate the task by writing the first and last words, suggesting that the child independently restore the chain of transformations.
For example, a fly … boxing: fly-flour-beech-side-boxing.
Play in the old days. Get an ink or fountain pen and write notes to Santa Claus, speech therapy exercises, descriptions of buried treasures … It is impossible to write with such a pen, it still has a positive effect on the handwriting. In general, it is useful to come up with some kind of game for the long term associated with the letter.
Usually dysgraphics do not like to write. But, sometimes, the topic is so enthralling that they start writing science fiction novels about zombie astronauts, compiling a catalog of favorite cars, a list of dishes for a princess wedding, etc. The main thing is to catch the moment, to help, but not to correct, and if corrected, then delicately.
My mothers told me how their youngsters, who are usually not seated for their lessons, spent hours rewriting the compound name of a beloved dinosaur or coloring the name of a musical group dear to the heart with patterns. What a pleasant surprise, the errors disappeared.
Offer the child a boring text in large print. Every day, 5 minutes a day, certain letters should be deleted.
For example, first “y”, in a few days – “a”. Then we undertake the consonants, it is best to start with those that the child confuses. For example, for five days a student deletes “B”, then “D”.
Then the task becomes more complicated: it is necessary to simultaneously search for two letters in the text at once. One, for example, cross out, the other – circle the circle.
Most often, children confuse such pairs “M / L”, “P / T”, “D / H”, “U / S”, “D / B”.
You can buy ready-made exercise books with missing letters. The child will only insert the desired letter. It is better to work out the words in advance and choose first very short exercises.
Speak “dangerous” places out loud, show the correct version, write it off. Then hide and ask: “What letter will you write here?” And only after that fill in the gaps in the words from the exercise, and this should be done with a pencil, because then the error is easy to erase and write the correct version.
“Strikethrough, or” fences “
Read a small text to the child. Then the child must write it under the dictation, then pick up a pencil and independently check the written, referring to the sample.
It should be checked this way. For example, in the sample it is written: “Autumn has come”.
The child reads “H”, looks at himself and crosses out “H” with a pencil in his notebook. Then he looks back into the sample and says out loud: “A”, he crosses out the letter “A” in the word “come”.
And so the whole text. By the end of the test, the text becomes like a palisade.
It is recommended to do no more than five minutes a day! Lesson, of course, tedious, but after a couple of weeks, errors become much smaller.
“Portrait of a“ favorite letter ”
If a student stubbornly confuses letters or their elements, you can offer to make a portrait of a “favorite” letter: draw it in the form of a fairy-tale creature, buildings, mold it out of clay, bake in the oven (and eat later), put out beads, cereals on clay, embroider, cut out of velvet or shiny paper, just to get bright and unusual.
Disgraphing is easier to overcome if you first write with a pencil or a special pen that can be erased. Wrong, erased, wrote the correct version.
A child has confidence in his abilities, he less focuses attention on mistakes, as a result, he really begins to write better. It is also better not to correct the child’s mistakes, but to suggest that he himself find the places where he was mistaken. A convenient handle for dysgraphics will be a pen with pimples for fingers and a triangular body.
There are often also triangular nozzles for pens and pencils on sale. In addition, the child is easier to write gel pen.
Even if the child is able to read about himself – let him read aloud. Only 15-20 minutes, but fun, not boring.
All home exercises are also recommended to speak out loud. First read aloud, and then, when cheating, again, all to pronounce.
Try to split tasks. It is better to perform small portions of writing exercises for 10 minutes than to rewrite damaged texts for many hours.
Children get tired quickly, attention falls, there are more and more mistakes, and it seems to the child that he is stumped, that he will never cope with it. And if you do one exercise, get praise for it, then another, between them to distract yourself to the gymnastics for the eyes or for the hands, then everything seems to be not so scary. Try not to focus the attention of the child on the mistakes.
At first, it’s better not to pay attention to them at all, but to see only improvements and mark only them.
There are a lot of books and manuals for overcoming violations of the letter. For example, albums by E.V. Mazanova, a series of excellent benefits by G. M. Segebart and many, many others.
Usually a speech therapist or teacher helps to find the right literature.