Today it is not news to anyone that the situation with pre-school institutions in Russia is difficult. The number of babies waiting for their turn in kindergartens is growing. The State Duma also introduced a bill providing for the introduction of compensation to families who were denied access to a child’s kindergarten due to the lack of places in preschool educational institutions in their village.
According to the bill, payments will be made from the regional budget. The amount of such compensation will be 5 thousand rubles.
In accordance with the “Model Provision on pre-school educational institution”, approved by the Government Decree of 12.09.2008 No. 666, today all types of pre-school institutions, including those that were previously called “nurseries”, have the official name “Children’s garden”. Here, supervision, care and rehabilitation are carried out; children are trained according to the basic general education program of pre-school education.
All DDU are divided into:
1) Kindergarten for young children (“nursery”). Children aged 2 months to 3 years are accepted here.
2) Kindergarten supervision and rehabilitation. In this institution, priority is given to sanitary and hygienic, preventive and recreational activities and procedures.
3) Kindergarten compensating type with priority implementation of a qualified correction. In these kindergartens take children with disabilities: with mental retardation, with a violation of the musculoskeletal system, with hearing, speech, vision, often ill children. Here special conditions are created for them: diet, swimming pools, saunas, massage rooms.
Training takes place on a special program. To arrange a child in such a garden, you need a referral from a pediatrician and a certificate from a specialist doctor on a kindergarten profile.
4) Kindergarten combined type. This institution includes various groups: general developing, compensating, and wellness.
5) Kindergarten with an ethnocultural component of education. The activity of such a garden is aimed at preserving the traditions and culture of the peoples (Tatar, Jewish, Georgian, Armenian, Russian). Education in such a kindergarten necessarily includes learning of national songs, dances, celebrating holidays, teaching national languages.
Familiarity with the national culture takes place in both languages (Russian and national).
6) Kindergarten of general developmental type with priority implementation of activities in one of the areas of children’s development. Here, the focus is on the development of children in one of such areas as cognitive speech, social personality, artistic and aesthetic, or physical.
7) Child development center – kindergarten. The center carries out an integrated approach to the upbringing and education of children. The child receives here both physical and mental development, special attention is also paid to intellectual and artistic and aesthetic development.
Most centers are equipped with swimming pools, computer, dance classes, art studios, children’s theaters.
8) Preschool groups of state educational institutions “gymnasium”. The word “gymnasium” is translated from Greek as “preparation for classes,” that is, a gymnasium prepares children for school. An important difference of this institution from the rest of kindergartens is a systematic study of the fundamentals of all subjects required for primary school.
In addition, the program includes music and choreography, modeling and drawing, rhythm and rhetoric, outdoor games and swimming.
9) Preschool groups of state educational institutions “education center”. The Education Center, in addition to general education, implements programs for additional and pre-school education. In such groups, organized in school, preparations are underway for further education, and the main thing is to provide children with equal starting opportunities for education in general education institutions.
10) Preschool groups of public educational institutions “primary school – kindergarten.” These children’s institutions are created for children of preschool and primary school age, that is, the child will attend primary school at the same institution.
Family kindergarten. Family kindergarten is organized in large families with 3 or more children aged 2 months to 7 years, at the place of residence of the family. Mom, who leads such a group, receives a salary, she has seniority.
A prerequisite is that the apartment must comply with sanitary standards and rules: at least 9 sq. M. m of total living space. The minimum number of pupils is three, the maximum is eight.
Structurally, the family kindergarten is subordinated to a nearby pre-school institution, which provides children with food, medical care; Kids can also use the sports base of the kindergarten, a hall.
Short stay groups. Children are supervised for several hours, as chosen by their parents.
The educational process is built in such a way as to realize the main lines of development: physical, cognitive-verbal, social-personal, artistic-aesthetic. Power is not provided.
Counseling points for parents with children of preschool age. They are called upon to provide psychological and pedagogical assistance to parents who do not have the opportunity to regularly communicate with teachers, psychologists and other specialists working in pre-school educational institutions, as well as to help the harmonious development of children.
In most regions, parents still have to apply to the administration of education of the district administration or to specially created territorial commissions for the recruitment of preschool institutions. The following documents are necessary for recording a baby in the kindergarten:
1) The document proving the identity of one of the parents (legal representatives) – the original.
2) Child’s birth certificate – original.
3) The document confirming the availability of benefits – the original.
According to parents, the most convenient way is to enroll a child in kindergarten via the Internet. Such an order has already been introduced in some regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tolyatti, Chelyabinsk, etc.).
Moscow parents can put a child on record in kindergarten by filling out an application on ec.mosedu.ru. Upon completion of the registration procedure, you will receive an individual (account) number. Quarterly, you will receive information on the timing of the decision on the issue of providing space in the garden to an email address, by mail or by telephone from the district Information Support Service.
You can also independently monitor the progress of solving the issue in the electronic journal on the website. Enrollment of the child in the kindergarten will be carried out on the basis of a list approved by the district education department in accordance with the date of registration and confirmed benefits.
The list of those who are entitled to benefits when they enter a kindergarten depends on the region where the child’s parents live.
For example, since 2011, in some regions, the following categories have been excluded from the list of beneficiaries:
- children of working single mothers;
- children of mothers;
- children of the unemployed, refugees and internally displaced persons;
- students’ children;
- twin children.
An extraordinary right to admission to kindergarten have:
- children whose parents are among orphans;
- children of judges;
- children of investigators and prosecutors;
- children whose parents were victims of the Chernobyl accident.
Priority right for admission to kindergarten have:
- children from a large family;
- children of military personnel;
- children of police officers;
- disabled children;
- children whose family has a child or one of the parents has a disability.
Preemptive rights for admission to kindergarten have:
- children of single mothers;
- children of employees of pre-school municipal and state educational institutions;
- children whose brothers and sisters already attend this state preschool institution.
The amount of payment for the maintenance of the child in the kindergarten and the list of benefits vary depending on the region and the category of pre-school educational institution.
Category 1 includes pre-school educational institutions that implement an educational program in accordance with requirements that exceed the mandatory minimum (state educational standard) in all areas of its activity: kindergartens are development centers. Ko 2-nd – pre-school educational institutions that implement an educational program in accordance with the requirements that exceed the state educational standard in one or several directions (kindergartens of general developing type, compensating type, combined type).
Category 3 includes pre-school institutions that implement an educational program in accordance with the requirements of the state educational standard in the field of pre-school education.
That is, if you give the child to a pro grammar school, a development center or a kindergarten of a compensating type, you will have to pay more than for a regular kindergarten.
A sample list of those who are eligible for payment:
1) The benefit in the amount of 25% of the monthly fee for the maintenance of children – for families with two children attending kindergarten.
2) A 50% benefit is provided:
- families with three or more minor children;
- single parents, including widows and divorced;
- mothers of children whose paternity is established by mutual consent of the parents or by a court decision, not married to the father of the child and not living with him;
- citizens exposed to radiation due to the Chernobyl disaster;
- pedagogical workers of state educational institutions and non-state educational organizations with state accreditation.
3) Benefit in the amount of 100% – are exempt from payment:
- families in which one or both parents are disabled of the 1st and 2nd groups;
- families with 10 or more minor children;
- families with a disabled child under 18;
- families of military personnel and employees of the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs who died in the line of duty;
- students, students, in case both parents receive full-time education;
- parents (legal representatives) for the maintenance of children in the “Special Child” short-term stay groups, in state educational institutions “compensatory type kindergarten” and “combined type kindergarten”, “elementary school – compensating type kindergarten” for deaf and hearing impaired children; blind and visually impaired children, children with intellectual disabilities, children with severe speech disorders.
In accordance with Art. 52.2 of the Law of the Russian Federation of 10.07.1992 No. 3266-1 “On Education” in order to provide material support for the upbringing and education of children attending state, municipal and other educational institutions that implement the basic general educational program of pre-school education, parents are paid compensation:
- for the first child – at least 20% of the amount of the parental payment paid by them;
- for the second child – at least 50%;
- for the third child and subsequent children – at least 70% of the size of this fee.
The right to receive compensation has one of the parents who have paid for the maintenance of the child in kindergarten.
Please note that parents of children attending private kindergartens are entitled to receive compensation along with parents whose children want to go to public kindergartens. True, the law applies only to private kindergartens, licensed and implementing a general educational program of preschool education.
When accepting a child in a preschool institution, parents must conclude an agreement in which all the rights and obligations of the kindergarten administration and the parents of the baby are prescribed. Here are the main ones:
Kindergarten undertakes to ensure the child’s life protection and the promotion of physical and mental health; personal development; development of creative abilities and interests; protection from all forms of physical and mental abuse; the safety of the property of the child.
- The contract should indicate the training program for which the kindergarten or group works.
- It is mandatory to indicate the schedule of visits by a child in kindergarten.
- If the child is medically prescribed diet food, it must also be spelled out in the contract.
- A separate paragraph of the contract should be devoted to the calculation of the size of the fee charged to parents for the maintenance of the child.
Parents, in turn, are obliged to: follow the rules of the schedule established in kindergarten; personally transfer and take the child from the caregiver, not entrusting the child to persons under the age of 18; bring the child to kindergarten in a neat form, clean clothes and shoes; inform the kindergarten about the absence of the child.
1) Children’s preschool institution must have a license and charter. Parents have the right to familiarize themselves with these documents at any time.
2) The status of a pre-school institution depends on the level of the educational program implemented in kindergarten.
3) Additional paid classes can not be provided in return and as part of the main educational activities.
4) The mode of operation of the kindergarten is determined in its charter and is fixed in the contract concluded between the kindergarten’s administration and the parents of the child.
5) The number of children in the kindergarten group is established by law. The maximum occupancy of the group depends on the age of the children and is:
- from 2 months to 1 year – 10 children;
- from 1 year to 3 years – 15 children;
- From 3 to 7 years old – 20 children.
6) Parents have the right to know what feed their child in kindergarten. Mandatory in the group should be posted daily menu.
7) The fee for keeping a child in kindergarten depends on the type of child care institution and the region in which it is located. This is the only established fee that parents are required to systematically implement.
Fees for extra classes are voluntary. And the rest of the so-called fees for “stationery”, “repair”, etc. are illegal.