The child complains of weakness, headache, general malaise. These can be either symptoms of flu or rhinovirus, or zoonosis.
Do not self-medicate, even if the temperature rose no higher than 37 ° C. Call the doctor – only the doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis. Moreover, it is not so easy to identify some zoonoses.
For example, one of the most common parasitic diseases – “feline” toxoplasmosis – can be accompanied by only a small fever. “Feline” toxoplasmosis is called because cats are the primary “source of infection.” It is in their feces that Toxoplasma cysts are found – parasites that cause infection, which persist on the ground for up to 1.5 years, spreading with water, wind, and transport wheels.
And children, digging in the ground or playing in the sandbox, risk picking up the infection. In addition, contaminated land often falls into the feed of farm animals.
According to statistics, 20% of the meat consumed in food is infected with toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the incidence of this pathology is very high: in various countries, the numbers range from 30 to 60%.
However, in most cases, toxoplasmosis does not manifest itself, and the person is simply the carrier of the infection. But with a weakening of the immune system, especially in children, the disease enters the active phase.
As a rule, the symptoms are mild and pass quickly. In rare situations, with severe immunodeficiency, toxoplasmosis can occur in acute form: there is chills, fever, high fever, vomiting, convulsions, lymph nodes increase, a rash appears on the body.
Treatment: In acute toxoplasmosis, the doctor prescribes antibiotic therapy. This is necessary to prevent severe complications.
In parallel, it is necessary to take drugs that raise the immune system of the baby.
In order to reduce the risk of developing toxoplasmosis, in addition to maintaining the protective functions of the body, a number of simple prescriptions should be followed:
- Cook meat at a temperature not lower than 60 ° C.
- Wash kitchen utensils and hands when cooking; cut raw meat on a special cutting board.
- Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before consumption.
- If a cat lives in the house, do not let it go outside and at least once a week clean and disinfect the cat’s toilet (certainly with gloves on).
- Feed pets only ready-made food, eliminating raw meat from the diet.
- Follow the rules of personal hygiene and from an early age to vaccinate their baby.
Funny games with a kitten can often end with the appearance of scratches. And even a small wound can cause benign lymphoreticulosis – “cat scratch fever” – an infectious disease caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium, which is part of the microflora of the cat’s mouth.
And the disease does not manifest itself immediately, but only after a few days (and even weeks!), When the scratch or wound from the bite is almost dragged out. The child suddenly rises in temperature, up to 40 ° C, fever begins, a red purulent sore appears at the site of injury, and the nearest lymph nodes become inflamed.
Treatment: Sometimes the abscess is opened independently, and the lymph nodes automatically shrink in size – but this happens in rare cases. As a rule, in children the disease is severe and threatens with complications: meningitis or other lesions of the nervous system.
Therefore, the bite site or scratch should be treated immediately after injury occurs with a 2% hydrogen peroxide solution or Miramistin, and then disinfected with iodine or brilliant green.
If after a couple of days the wound, in spite of the measures taken, began to swell, hurt and the temperature suddenly rose, immediately consult a doctor! If necessary, the specialist will prescribe a course of antibacterial agents and drugs that strengthen the immune system.
In addition to scratches, communication with street cats and dogs, with which curious kids like to “meet” so much, can be fraught with infection with microsporia or trichophytosis – “ringworm”. Of course, a child is unlikely to catch this fungal infection from a home, well-groomed, healthy puppy or kitten, but by stroking someone else’s cat, it can easily become infected.
However, sometimes even pets can bring fungus spores.
First, the baby’s temperature rises, lymph nodes increase, rashes appear, and after 5-7 days the skin starts to itch. And on the affected areas — arms, legs, face, scalp, neck, back — small, round or oval, pink or gray, scaly spots appear. You can not comb them – the risk of spreading the infection throughout the body is high.
If deprive it affects the scalp, the hair breaks off at a height of 4-6 mm.
Treatment: Depending on the stage of the disease, therapy is carried out at home or in hospital. Before prescribing a treatment regimen, a dermatologist will conduct tests, various studies and make an accurate diagnosis. After the child is prescribed antifungal drugs, possibly antibiotics (when attaching a bacterial infection), ointments containing sulfur, salicylic acid, tar.
The treatment is long, not less than a month, and at this time the child needs to be allocated a separate room, bed, household items. All children’s clothing and underwear should be boiled, after drying from both sides, by drying it through a damp cloth.
For the period of treatment, roll up all the carpets and soft toys – fungal spores can “settle” in them. Vacuum daily the apartment and carry out damp cleaning.
For a small child, visiting the farm, watching cows and goats grazing in the meadow, taste of fresh fresh milk is a real event! But in rare cases, these unforgettable impressions can turn into diarrhea.
And if diarrhea is accompanied by temperature up to 38–39 ° C, chills, weakness, cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, we can talk about salmonellosis.
As a rule, the infection enters the body with meat products, eggs, boiled fresh milk, vegetables. But sometimes salmonellosis can be infected and simply patting the back of a lamb, donkey or cow. Salmonella overcome the barrier of the stomach and are introduced into the mucous membrane of the small intestine, releasing toxins, which causes intoxication and diarrhea.
The disease lasts from 2 to 10 days and threatens with such complications as peritonitis, toxic expansion of the intestine.
Treatment: Babies require hospitalization. In the early hours, a “water-tea diet” and rehydron are usually prescribed to restore lost electrolytes.
Then prescribed antibiotics, bacteriophages, vitamin therapy.
After any contact with animals, wash hands thoroughly with the child. It is not necessary to offer unpasteurized milk or eggnog of raw eggs to your baby – this greatly increases the risk of infection.
It turns out that even communication with “birds” can be dangerous. In addition to allergic reactions, a disease such as ornithosis can occur, an infection caused by the intracellular chlamydia psittaci virus. This disease affects ducks, turkeys and chickens, as well as pigeons, sparrows and even budgerigars, and then can be transmitted to humans by inhaling contaminated dust.
Symptoms are similar to manifestations of pneumonia: chills, fever up to 40 ° C, fever, headache, loss of appetite, body aches, dry, sharp cough. Unlike other respiratory diseases, the patient is almost never bothered with sore and sore throat or runny nose.
The acute period lasts from 10 to 20 days, and the full recovery of the body occurs only after 2-2.5 months.
Treatment: It is necessary to consult a pulmonologist or infectious diseases specialist. The doctor will collect data on the history of the disease, conduct a survey on contacts with domestic and wild birds, make an immunological blood test, determining the concentration of antibodies against the pathogen, and x-rays.
After prescribing a course of antibiotics.
It is possible to prevent ornithosis infection by observing the usual rules of hygiene, prohibiting the baby from feeding the birds from the hands and strengthening the child’s immunity.