It should be started at least 1-2 months before the child is admitted to kindergarten. The task of this stage is to form such skills and skills in the behavior of the baby that will help him to adapt to new conditions for him faster and easier.
The optimal age for adaptation to kindergarten
According to psychologists, the best age for exploring a kindergarten is 2.5–3 years. At this age, children are much easier to adapt to the new environment compared to the one and a half year olds and two year olds, due to the fact that they already know how to speak, have some self-service skills, have experience with adults and feel the need to communicate with their peers, and can more easily do without moms for a long time.
It is impossible to give an unequivocal answer to the question exactly when it is better to send a child to kindergarten. First of all, make sure that your family needs a kindergarten right now. The kid feels great when parents doubt the feasibility of kindergarten education.
It is easier and faster to get used to children, whose parents have no alternative to kindergarten. If you do decide to take this step, keep in mind that within the next 2-3 months after the crumb crosses the threshold of the kindergarten for the first time, you should have enough free time to adapt to the optimal visit schedule.
Some kids from the first days feel fine in the kindergarten, and someone will take time, and in this case should not force things, it is important to ensure the gradual adaptation of the child to the new environment. In many preschool institutions there are short-stay groups that are designed to become an adaptation step between the house and the full-time group.
Take advantage of this opportunity. Usually, children who have experience in visiting such a group are more easily adapted to new conditions.
You should not start to drive a child to kindergarten, if, for example, in a week you are going to go on vacation with your whole family for 2-3 weeks. Upon return, the baby will undergo the process of adaptation again, and for his nervous system this is a serious test.
Each child before going to kindergarten must pass a medical commission and pass tests. However, if the pediatrician gave you the conclusion that the baby is ready to attend kindergarten, this does not mean that he will not get sick. And yet there is one proven way to avoid numerous colds during the adaptation period – this is hardening. Proceed to the procedures should be at least 3 months before entering the kindergarten.
Let us cite as an example the methodology that kindergarten teachers use for many years during summer recreational work. Put a towel wetted with cold water in the bath (temperature no higher than +12 ° C). Ask the crumb to sink his feet (do not stand!) On it for 1 min (in the morning and at night).
Wipe his feet, not rubbing, and soaking towel. Gradually, having made sure of the safety of this method, proceed to dousing the feet with water.
Pour cold water with a temperature not higher than +12 ° C into a basin or bucket and pour the baby standing in a bath onto the feet at the same time. The water outlet must remain open.
Ask the child to stomp his feet while the water is flowing. Wipe his feet, not rubbing them, and soaking towel. After 2 months, complete the evening hardening only with ankle walking in the water.
When the first portion of water that you washed the baby’s feet has drained, pour cold water into the bath from the prepared container, but not onto the legs. On the first day, the duration of the walk is 1 min.
After 7 days, gradually extend the procedure, adding daily for 1 minute and bringing it to 5 minutes. If the crumb “run over” in the water and asks to wipe the legs, immediately follow his request.
The tempering procedure should always be accompanied by a good mood. The duration of the procedure is no more than 5 minutes.
It is great if you also organize regular visits to the pool and, even better, choose a kindergarten with a pool.
Getting used to life on schedule
Ask beforehand what day schedule is provided for in the kindergarten of your choice (what time the children arrive, what time they eat, go to bed during the day). Adjust the home mode. Restructuring should begin 2-3 months before the start of a kindergarten visit. Certainly, one should be patient and patient: the child is not able to change his schedule according to our wishes, he is guided by a dynamic stereotype – a very conservative thing, therefore one should approach this issue very seriously, consistently and systematically.
A ritual should be introduced and repeated every day (no one from the family should be the “weak link” – usually it is the adults who find it most difficult to agree on the lifestyle of the child). First, set an early climb for the baby as a necessary measure: “We need to have time to go to the zoo for the discovery itself, we will see how the animals are fed”, etc. He must “see” the necessity and expediency of this event.
Do not associate the early rise with the “preparation for kindergarten” – this can cause a pre-negative attitude towards this institution. Laying ritual should consist of clear, child-friendly actions: reading a book, listening to calm music (relaxation), light stroking.
Kids love constancy: they feel more secure and will soon fall asleep quickly. If the child is not sleeping during the day, try to after lunch, he just lay quietly while you read to him or tell something.
Gradually reduce the time of daytime sleep to 2 hours, if the baby is used to prolonged afternoon sleep.
Together with the kindergarten mode, explore the menu: a lot can and should be introduced into homemade food.
If your precious child does not have a good appetite from birth, then be sure to talk to the tutor so that he will in no way force-feed him. This can provoke aversion not only to food, but also to the kindergarten, as well as to all educators.
Enlist the support of teachers, often ask questions, do not be afraid to be intrusive: educators, like you, are interested to get your baby quickly mastered.
We train self-service skills
Form the child’s independence in self-service, play, and communication with adults and peers in family education. If at the time of admission to kindergarten your child will be able to put on clothes, tie cords on shoes, drink from a cup, use a spoon, sit on a pot, he will feel more confident in the group. Teach the child to the pot (toilet).
Give him a spoon, show me how to use it. If you are going for a walk, do not rush to put it on – let him try to handle it himself, even if it takes more time. Calmly explain to him how to wear shoes, tights, a jacket, and a t-shirt.
Encourage any manifestation of independence: at the moment the result and the quality of the action performed are not important – own activity is important. Important training, constant repetition.
Provide only the necessary assistance, metered. Without overcoming there is no development.
Support the child, rejoice in his success. The only limitation should be its safety and common sense.
Strive to ensure that the kid knows how to occupy himself with the game on his own, teach him to play: feed the dolls, “walk” to the store, build a garage for typewriters, etc. To begin with, tell and show him the sequence of game actions, play with him several times, and then try to become a spectator by relegating the child to the main role in the games.
It is the toy that can become the support that will help build the relationship of the child with the teachers at first: business communication about the toy is a good incentive to communicate with a curious child and build trusting relationships.
Form the right mood
To make the kid want to go to kindergarten, you need to do something like a PR action to “promote” this event. First of all, explain to the baby that he has already grown up and can attend kindergarten.
Let him take it as a reward for his skills. Tell about your own experience if it was positive.
Show photos from childhood with friends in kindergarten. Tell us what they usually do in kindergarten (games, activities, friends, walks, joint meals). In this case, you should not deceive the kid and draw magic pictures – let your story be optimistic, but as truthful as possible.
Come up with fairy tales and stories in which the characters attend kindergarten together. You can also attract to the stories of the older comrade crumbs, who have long and happy to attend kindergarten.
Teach your child the rules of communication
Before you go to kindergarten, the baby must be taught basic rules of behavior in society. The child must understand the prohibitions, be able to obey adults, communicate with other children, share, understand that others can not be offended. To do this, spend more time with him on the playground, go to visit friends who also have small children.
Invite them to visit you. Teach the baby to communicate! All children, without exception, experience the experience of the “sandbox” – through a peer, the child distinguishes himself, is aware of his individual characteristics. If you come to the playground, show him how you can ask for a toy, suggest a change, invite another baby or ask yourself to participate in the game.
Teach your child to meet – first ask other children yourself what their names are and introduce your child to them. Gradually, he will begin to take an example from you and will do everything himself.
Teach the child partings
It is the child-parental relationship, in the opinion of most psychologists, that to a greater extent influence the duration and nature of the child’s adaptation to kindergarten.
For a child entering preschool, it is important to have the experience of separation from the mother. Separation and reunion.
Scarce must be firmly sure: mother will return.
Try to teach him in advance to your absence, gradually increasing the distance between you. First, stand next to him, in the sandbox, then a meter away from him, then go a little further away, but so that the baby can see you.
Do not rush the child, shame – so you only increase the anxiety. Find an opportunity to leave the baby with a well-known person (relative, your close friend): first briefly, then increase the time the child stays without you, taking from two to three hours to eight to nine. By the time the child enters the kindergarten, it is desirable that he has a social need to communicate with adults on educational topics and in active independent actions.
At the same time, do not forget to warn the precious child about when you will come and come exactly when you promised. In memory of the crumbs this moment should be fixed, then he will be less worried in kindergarten that you will not come for him.
If the preparatory stage was successful and you did everything correctly, by the beginning of the kindergarten visit the child will already know what it is and why he will go there. And yet, the adaptation period is inevitable.
What to do to minimize the possible difficulties of adaptation?
The first and most important: make sure that you need a kindergarten! If you doubt the correctness of the decision, the adaptation is likely to be difficult.
Are you ready to let go of the child and send him, at least for a while, “in independent swimming”?
Second: be patient! Crying a child during the adaptation period is a normal and natural phenomenon.
Try to establish good relations with the caregivers and other parents of the group. Going into the locker room, be sure to greet all those present: children, parents, educators.
By this you let the child know that it is safe here, you trust the caregivers (contact them by name and patronymic). And let your little one enter the cry at the moment, believe me, he noted this to himself out of the corner of his eye.
At parting, hug, caress the child, but do not tighten the moment of separation. You can also agree with the crumb about the “farewell ritual”, for example, that you will surely wave him through the window. If parting with mom is too hard, let someone else (dad or grandmother) try to take the crumb to the kindergarten.
Give the child with you any thing that will remind him of the house: a favorite toy or book.
At home, make a drawing in which you draw (together with your child) a house, a kindergarten, your work, a shop, etc. And then use the arrows to draw a route and speak it. “In the morning we will go to kindergarten from our house together, then I will go to work to earn money, and you will stay in kindergarten to play and study, after work I will go to the store, buy milk, bread and follow you to kindergarten, back home together. ” It is possible to supplement this story with details, necessary clarifications.
To the child’s question: “When will you come for me?” Avoid the answer: “Soon.” The child is not yet oriented in space-time relationships.
Your answer will not satisfy him. List the regime moments, for example, “you will have breakfast, play with the children, go for a walk, come back from the walk, have dinner – and I will come after you”.
Never fool a child. Even if your deception will delay tears for today, you will mistrust, and therefore alarm.
Tell only the truth.
Be patient to show disinhibition at home after visiting the garden during the adaptation period – the child just needs to “release” emotions, because in kindergarten for the first time he will feel constrained.