In the human intestine, many microorganisms, beneficial and disease-causing bacteria coexist in harmony, which ensure the proper functioning of the digestive system and the whole organism. “Good” (the doctor will say – “obligate”) bacteria – bifidobacteria and lactobacilli – protect against germs, help in the absorption of vital nutrients and vitamins, contribute to the digestion and absorption of food.
“Bad” (opportunistic, disease-causing) bacteria, which include streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, are safe as long as the body is healthy. Any disease, psychological stress or reduced immunity can lead to an imbalance of microorganisms in the intestinal flora – dysbacteriosis: in this case, the “bad” bacteria begin to multiply and interfere with the beneficial to carry out their duties.
But dysbacteriosis is not a disease, it is a request of the immune system for help, a sign that pathological changes occur in the body.
In children, intestinal microflora begins to form from the moment of birth. The first acquaintance with bacteria begins with the passage of the birth canal, at the contact of the mucous membranes of the child and mother. Therefore, doctors constantly talk about the importance of my mother’s health, because if her body has inflammatory processes, diseases of the oral cavity, stomach, liver, kidneys and female organs, along with beneficial bacteria, pathogens will also enter the vulnerable intestines of the newborn.
And in the very near future this may lead to the incorrect formation of bacterial microflora and dysbacteriosis.
The next fundamental transmission occurs during the first breastfeeding. For the proper formation of the intestinal microflora of the child it is very important that this happens in the first minutes of his life.
In breast milk in the first week after birth there are bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci and other microorganisms that will be a reliable support for the immune system of the newborn. The faster they enter the body, the better; with early attachment to the chest, the formation of intestinal microflora ends by the end of the first week of the baby’s life.
At a later (even 12−24 hours after birth), it lasts up to 2−3 weeks, and this may complicate the process of laying the immunity and the full work of the digestive system.
Bacteria are transmitted through the skin, so after birth the tactile contacts of the baby are very important. Only a mother can pass on the crumbs the necessary beneficial microorganisms, so it is important that they stay together immediately after birth, and it is better to reduce the care and touch of the medical staff of the maternity hospital to the baby to the necessary minimum, because it is often impossible to prevent the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from other people, even if they are medical professionals.
After discharge from the maternity hospital, the health of the baby’s digestive system in mother’s hands: the microflora depends entirely on feeding. If the mother is breastfeeding, while healthy and observing the correct diet, the crumb will get all the microorganisms necessary for its development from milk.
Moreover, breast milk contains immunoglobulin A, which is necessary for the functioning of its immune system.
When artificial feeding from the first days of life, the baby’s immunity can be reduced, because its own body does not produce an immunoglobulin, and this can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria and the development of dysbacteriosis, impaired stool and inflammatory processes in the intestine. Therefore, for the “artificiality” it is important to choose the right baby food.
Pediatricians usually recommend adapted mixtures enriched with prebiotics – components that help the reproduction of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, they are designed to protect the baby from possible disruption of the gastrointestinal tract.
A healthy diet is also important for older children: there should be enough protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins in the diet. Vegetables, fruits, juices, meat and fish are all sources of nutrients necessary for the development of a child.
Do not forget that proper nutrition is the basis of strong immunity, which will protect the baby not only from dysbiosis, but also from many other diseases.
- Based on the microbiological analysis of feces and coprogram, the doctor will determine the cause of dysbiosis and prescribe drugs for its treatment, as well as a diet for the baby.
- If dysbiosis is caused by fermentation processes in the body, carbohydrates (sugar, honey, jam), fresh milk and raw fiber are limited in the child’s diet. All dishes are better to cook or steam.
- If the processes of rotting are disturbed, limit the intake of meat and fats and increase the number of vegetable dishes.
- In case of fungal dysbacteriosis, products and dishes containing yeast are not recommended for the child: hot fresh bread, warm cakes, cheese, mushrooms, grapes, raisins, pancakes with yeast and sauerkraut.
- The use of dairy products is a good prevention of dysbacteriosis. Children are recommended not earlier than 8 months of age.
Attentive mothers always pay attention to the baby’s chair, they know its regularity, color and texture. In case of any changes, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Changes in stool, including diarrhea and constipation, suggest that malfunctioning of the digestive system occurs. But how to determine the prerequisites for the development of dysbiosis, if the chair is all right?
Observe the general state and mood of the child: if the skin has changed, it has become slower to gain weight, lost appetite, has become more naughty and sick, there is a problem. This is not necessarily dysbacteriosis, only a doctor can make a diagnosis on the basis of a microbiological analysis of feces and coprogram, but in any case the baby is unwell.
Dysbacteriosis can appear on the background of unbalanced nutrition and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, stress conditions and disorders of the nervous system, respiratory diseases, allergic reactions and adverse environmental conditions of the baby, antibacterial treatment. And the younger the crumb, the greater the chance of dysbacteriosis, because the immune system of babies in most cases is not strong enough to prevent the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria in the body, and the enzymatic up to 6 months does not release all the necessary substances that protect the child from the ingress of pathogenic bacteria into the intestine .
The first thing that a pediatrician or a gastroenterologist does, if he sees symptoms of dysbiosis, is looking for the cause of its occurrence. Dysbacteriosis itself is a functional malfunction of the large intestine, provoked by one or another malfunction of the body.
When the diagnosis is made, parallel treatment of the root cause of the violation of the intestinal bacterial balance and dysbacteriosis itself, depending on its stage, begins.
In parallel with the main therapy, the doctor prescribes a diet for the little patient, because, as we remember, proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle are important for immunity, and dysbacteriosis is always associated with its weakening. But to restore the balance of “good” and “bad” bacteria in the body, we need the help of probiotics – drugs that restore healthy microflora and stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
Modern pharmacology offers a huge selection of probiotics for the smallest: Linex (Lek), Normoflorin (CJSC Bifilyuks), Bifiform Malysh (Ferrosan International A / S), Relah Life (BioGaia AB) and etc. But which one is right for your child, only a doctor will say.
If this therapy does not help, the doctor will prescribe drugs that will reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria or destroy them altogether. Young patients are usually recommended bacteriophages – drugs based on live bacteria, whose action is aimed at the destruction of “bad” microorganisms, but they have no effect on beneficial bacteria; the name of the drug indicates which bacteria it fights; for example, there are staphylococcal, streptococcal, and klebsiella bacteriophages.
In the treatment of dysbacteriosis, sorbents are also used – drugs that absorb and remove toxins and harmful substances from the body. Sorbents include: Smekta (BEAUFOUR IPSEN INDUSTRIE), Neosmektin (Pharmproject ZAO Pharmproekt / Pharmstandart-Leksredstva), Laktofiltrum (AVVA RUS / STI-MED-SORB), Enterosgel ( OOO TNK SILMA), etc.