For a newborn, a subject that he no longer sees or does not hear, simply ceases to exist (at least this is the opinion of a large number of specialists). But by three months the child already knows that what is inaccessible to his gaze continues to exist, all he has to do is scream – and the sought-after (mother, breast, bottle) will soon appear.
All this has fundamental implications for the development of the psyche of the child.
By 3 months, the baby is able to recreate the images of objects in the mind. The sequence of stages of the formation of representations will lead to the ability to think logically.
These stages are beautifully described by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
From 2 to 4 years there is a symbolic thinking. The child has the ability to play a role.
Spoon turns into a plane for the delivery of peas, and he himself and an experienced pilot, and a growling engine.
The child understands that, knocking the table with both hands, you can express joy. Raising a hand and shaking it left-right, they say: “Goodbye!”.
Showing a tense tongue, mocking, relaxed – expressing disgust … In a word, the child is already consciously using symbols and ideas.
By 4 years, the first form of reasoning appears. The child enters the age of “why?”. Why is there sea, sky, boats?
Most often, he is not looking for a logical answer that an adult would try to give him. He, like a little stranger, wants to catch the inner essence of objects and phenomena that he sees: there is the sea, because there are boats (which the child admired), because there are fish (which he watched), because they go there for the holidays.
Between 4 and 5, 5 years, the child still maintains an egocentric position and reference point, it serves its own perception. But at the same time he is open to everything new, extremely curious and inquisitive, which helps him to go beyond his small experience.
A child at this age is dominated by realistic, concrete, materialistic thinking. For example, when he sleeps, he firmly believes what he saw in dreams. For him, the images from sleep are real.
Moreover, the child believes that dreams come into his head and go out of it. The child still confuses the real and imaginary, the object and the subject.
This is also the age of animistic thinking. During this period he gives things and animals with thoughts and intentions.
The cat was angry and knocked down the vase. It is raining very hard because God is sad.
He thinks that everything is done for man: someone brought water to make the sea for bathing. His egocentrism is logical, intentions are simple and depend on his desires.
With 5.5 years old child sharpens their thinking. It becomes more logical, but it is enough to change the conditions a little, and it will get lost.
Take the example of cleaning. If the toy box is missing, the child will not know how to be, where to put the toys. But the task to clean the room is, and with high probability the child will stuff everything under the cupboard or under the bed.
Up to 6–7 children are rarely able to make independent decisions. At this age, if you do not define a place for things, he will pile them together, waiting for your instructions on how to do better.
By 6 or 7 years, the child finally realizes that the existence of Santa Claus is impossible. How could he go through all the fireplaces of the world and put toys for young children at the same time?
He knows that the toys that match his wishes were chosen by the parents.
The same applies to a small mouse or a tooth fairy, who brought a gift for his dropped baby teeth: the child knows perfectly well that it does not exist. Now he has reached the age of reason. And sometimes he regrets a little why he is no longer so naive …
From 2 to 3 years old, the kid can hold a pencil, felt-tip pen or a brush, of course, not always correctly. His works are mostly like funny doodles.
By the age of 3, the child moves on to drawing lines and circles. This shapeless pattern, called the head of psychology, is of great importance.
Because on it the child portrays himself as a separate being. So, he is already capable of symbolization.
In 4 years, more perfect fine motor skills allows the child to close the circle. He draws a single being, a real human image with symbolic features (inside the circle) and a body (outside the circle).
Two simple lines – arms and legs.
In 4.5 years, the little man is painted, he has eyes, fingers in the form of a flower or a rake. Several details appear: the navel, hair, sexual organ … The human image is an inexhaustible source of interest of the child during this period. However, do not rush to interpret what the child depicts … or does not depict in the figure.
Drawing with difficulty and uncertainly a child may be particularly sensitive to your comments.
Learning to write is a very complicated and unusual knowledge in the perception of a child. The small student must understand that the word transferred to them on white paper carries a meaning and is radically different from the figure. So, somehow scratched the word “Andrew” means him!
And this is from the field of pure abstraction.
At the age of 3, the child knows some letters and tries to write his name.
At 4, he even manages to write his name from memory. He also knows simple words such as “papa”, “mama”, the names of brothers and sisters.
Vocabulary luggage of the child is gradually enriched.
At the age of 6, in the preparatory group, the child will focus on the shape of the letters and their appearance. His whole body is involved in this work.
Bowing his head, the child sticks out his tongue and swings to cheer himself up. This tense effort is very tiring. At home, do not demand much from the child.
If he is given a homework assignment (although this is not recommended), limit yourself to 10-20 minutes, leave him time to play.
We think of learning to read as a little miracle. For us, the child who started learning to read is the father of Egyptology, Champollion. It is about deciphering incomprehensible characters and understanding that they carry some kind of message.
Children learn to read at different ages, at their own pace, and this is completely normal.
Education has been reading between 5 and 7 years. At this age, children already understand that words consist of a sequence of sounds.
And this understanding comes much easier when they are told a lot of interesting stories and they learn poems and verses with them at a very early age. If a child has difficulties in learning, he can be helped by offering to read carefully selected texts with a lot of rhymes and repetitions and, of course, with an interesting plot.
At the age of 3, a child can count to 10 and begins to understand addition and subtraction. In fact, he is only beginning to allocate relative values: two pieces of cake are better than one, and three machines are much less than ten. It is not necessary to demand much from the child.
Learning to count (sequences of words and numbers) will happily introduce the child to the score.
By 4 or 5 years, the child will be able to classify and organize things, that is, become capable of simple, but very important logical operations.
At the age of 6, the child will master the classification according to the greater number of signs.
Up to 7 years of age in children, space-time representations are very approximate. “Mom, have you seen dinosaurs?” – many parents heard similar pearls.
In kindergarten, a child is just starting to get acquainted with the concepts of “before”, “after” or “now” that relate to his daily activities. “Yesterday” for a child of this age can mean: “When I was in your stomach” or “Last week at my grandmother …”
Regularity of actions helps the child to navigate in time. At school, in the garden, rituals are not only streamlined, but also facilitates learning.
When you say the familiar phrase: “Now we brush our teeth and put on our pajamas,” your child realizes that it’s time to sleep.
How else can you help your child feel the movement of time? Birthdays (his, parents, friends), marked on the calendar; height meter, allowing you to measure yourself and see how he grew from the previous measurement.
At the age of 7, most children are oriented in time. But only closer to 10 years the child will have a sufficient ability to abstraction in order to truly understand the meaning of time (to imagine oneself in the future, to evaluate the passing time, the remaining time).