Poor waterproofing, cracks in the walls and on the ceiling, tightly closed windows, leaks seem harmless only at first glance. Such a household microclimate can cause allergic reactions – one of the most common health problems in young children. It all begins with a food allergy, which usually passes by 3-4 years.
But another scenario is also possible when, as the child grows older, the “radius of defeat” only increases. Household allergies, that is, the reaction to house dust and mold fungi, or pollen allergy (pollinosis) are all very real dangers. The reaction to household allergens does not depend on the season, and the exacerbation of pollinosis is seasonal, with a peak in spring and summer.
On hot, dry and windless days, the concentration of pollen from flowering plants and dust in the air increases markedly, and prolonged rainy weather and high humidity can provoke a mold even in well-equipped and equipped with all modern comforts.
When a child inhales the air in which such irritants are present, they settle on the mucous membrane of the bronchi or the nasal cavity. In response to the invasion of the “alien”, the immune system releases the biologically active substance histamine into the bloodstream, which triggers an allergic reaction.
It manifests itself in the form of inflammation and swelling of the mucous membranes. In allergic rhinitis, breathing through the nose is difficult; a copious runny nose with sneezing and itching begins.
In bronchial asthma due to edema of the bronchial mucosa, the lumen of the airways narrows, shortness of breath begins with wheezing on the exhalation and morning cough.
In order for a child with the least loss of health to endure seasonal misfortunes, it is necessary to get rid of allergens, and if this is not possible, minimize contact with them and minimize their concentration in the air as much as possible.
Very often an allergy attack provokes a microscopic fungus – mold. It grows and multiplies both outdoors and indoors.
Mold spores are constantly present in the air and, getting into the respiratory tract, can cause a response in some people – runny nose, cough, shortness of breath. If you do not get rid of the source of trouble in time and do not begin treatment, the child may develop bronchial asthma.
According to statistics, in houses of allergic people mold is found in 80 cases out of 100, and hypersensitivity to mold fungus allergens is detected in 15% of children diagnosed with bronchial asthma.
Mold fungi are almost omnipresent, but troubles begin when favorable conditions for their reproduction are created: high humidity, heat and air stagnation. Therefore, the mold obeys last year’s leaves, haystacks, grass mown and wet from the rain, damp basements, barns, sheds.
If the baby is asthmatic, such places should be avoided.
Mold fungi can begin to multiply in urban apartments. Even the smallest leakage can provoke their growth.
Lime absorbs moisture very quickly, so mold can appear on walls, tiles, and in case of major accidents – on wallpaper, furniture, carpets and curtains. It manifests itself in the form of dark spots, while the smell of damp is clearly felt. If something similar happened, dry the room, change the wallpaper, sometimes you even have to do cosmetic repairs.
To make sure that you got rid of the mold, you should examine the premises for the presence of mushrooms. This is done by special organizations that take smears-prints from different surfaces and air samples.
If necessary, they will treat the house or apartment fungicidal drugs.
In order for mold to have a chance of life, you need to regularly clean the bathroom, toilet, basement, kitchen and do not forget to air them. Do not block any ventilation openings.
All wet surfaces should be wiped dry. In the kitchen should use the hood. It will relieve not only of unpleasant odors, but also of steam.
Dry laundry only in well ventilated area.
Keep an eye on the level of humidity. For fungal allergies, it should be no more than 40-50%.
If it is higher, buy a dryer or conditioner that removes excess moisture.
Allergic reactions can also occur on flowering pollen. For example, in June, pollen from pine, plantain, sorrel, nettle, many grasses and grasses can provoke an attack, and in June – quinoa.
Since pollen is carried by wind over long distances, it is better to keep the windows closed and use air purifiers indoors during the mass flowering of plants. Laundry at this time is better to dry indoors, and not on the balcony, where it is quickly soaked with allergens.
For the same reason, you need to change the baby’s clothes every day, and bathe the baby before bed and wash his head.
Dust is a cocktail of fungi, vegetable fibers, food grains, excrement of insects, such as cockroaches, particles of human skin and pets. That is why micro-mites readily settle in it – the main causative agents of household allergies.
Especially well they multiply in upholstered furniture, bedding, plush toys. If a baby has an allergy to micro-ticks, doctors recommend daily wet cleaning.
Upholstered furniture and carpets, it is desirable to vacuum once a week and only in the absence of a child. To do this, you should buy a vacuum cleaner specially designed for allergy sufferers with HEPA filters (high efficiency particulate assumulator – a highly efficient microparticle collector), which draws in and keeps inside invisible dust allergens.
This way you will avoid increasing the concentration of allergens in the air. Bedding from hypoallergenic synthetic materials will also help protect the child from the invisible enemy of the enemy.
Wash them once a week at a temperature not lower than 70 ° C. Soft toys in the summer to warm up well in the sun and in any season – once a month to wash in the washing machine.
Parents should remember that only an allergist can make an accurate diagnosis, determine the cause of trouble and choose the treatment tactics. The examination usually includes skin tests or a blood test to determine the E-IgE allergen-specific immunoglobulins specific. The specific method of examination is also chosen by the doctor.
Children over 5 years old with suspected bronchial asthma also undergo a study of respiratory function using a spirograph or computer program. Indicators are measured before and after the administration of the bronchodilator drug.
Asthma can be suspected if there is a large increase in values within 15–20 minutes after inhalation.
The doctor will prescribe antihistamines, and in asthma, to help alleviate the child’s condition – first aid and basic therapy – drugs that should be used regardless of the presence of symptoms. Since 5 years of age, the treatment of guilty allergens has been carried out – allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Drugs containing “provocateurs” reactions are introduced into the body in a gradually increasing concentration, and thus they are “taught” to react correctly to such stimuli.
Otherwise, to stop the development of the disease is simply impossible.