These substances appear due to the hard work of the hormonal glands of our body: the thyroid gland, the pituitary (it is located at the base of the brain), the adrenal glands and even the placenta and ovaries. Hormones play the role of messengers, each of them has its own mission – to deliver important information or orders from its “creators”, hormonal glands, to the rest of the organs.
Once in the blood, they go in search of the “recipient”, and when they reach it, they give the instruction they received themselves. Most of us know only 2-3 of these substances (among them probably estrogens and progesterone), but in fact there are dozens of them, all of them are produced in different quantities, and each plays its own role in the common cause, which after 9 months will end with the birth of a baby .
At the beginning of the menstrual cycle, under the action of pituitary hormones in the ovary, the follicle matures, and an egg cell emerges from it. The walls of the follicle begin to produce hormones, estrogens, which prepare the uterus mucosa to accept the fertilized egg.
Then the follicle in the ovary bursts, and in its place a pad forms – the corpus luteum, which takes the baton and begins to produce another hormone – progesterone, which is necessary for the uterus mucous membrane to be fully prepared to accept the egg and protect it.
The corpus luteum will release progesterone until 14–16 weeks of gestation, then it will be replaced by placenta at the post. This amazing organ not only connects the mother and the child, provides it with nutrients, but also produces many hormones necessary for the development of pregnancy.
The most important of them is progesterone, he will become the “main keeper” of expectations.
As soon as the fertilized egg is attached to the uterus by the efforts of the hormone command, the main work begins.
The source Outside of pregnancy, it releases the corpus luteum in the second half of the menstrual cycle, and from the 14th week of waiting for the baby, the placenta takes up the baton. For 9 months, the concentration of progesterone in the blood of the expectant mother gradually increases, and 2 weeks before the birth drops sharply.
Role He prepares the uterine mucosa to receive the ovum, from which the baby will develop, and still does not allow the uterus to shrink ahead of time, that is, until the day of birth.
Term I The main keeper of pregnancy, progesterone relaxes smooth muscles. The whole calculation is that there are quite a lot of them in the composition of the walls of the uterus, which means that they can not suddenly decrease.
Thus, the baby is reliably protected from any surprises and can safely grow until the very time of birth. One problem: progesterone acts blindly and affects other organs with its powerful relaxing force, such as the intestines, in the wall of which is also fairly smooth muscle.
Result? He begins to “be lazy”: the movement of food on it slows down, and after eating his mistress has a feeling of bloating, and sometimes annoying difficulties during trips to the toilet.
But this is not the end of the story. Venous and arterial walls, consisting of smooth muscles to be relaxed, obeying the command, expand, causing blood pressure to decrease.
It is in this that doctors see the cause of dizziness and fainting of future mothers: sometimes it is enough for a woman to stand up sharply, and the heart begins to pump blood with difficulty, the brain feels a lack of oxygen, and unpleasant sensations are provided.
II trimester From the 16th week of pregnancy, progesterone begins to produce the placenta. And while the relaxing effect of progesterone continues safely.
The walls of blood vessels fall into its zone of influence. They expand, blood flow in them slows down, and venous blood begins to stagnate, risking to cause varicose veins. Small wreaths can tread blue threads under the skin.
And although this is not a pleasant sight, do not be discouraged, they will disappear some time after birth. As well as brown spots on the face, which appear from about the 4th month of pregnancy under the action of the sun.
III trimester. The progesterone pregnancy guardian angel is still on guard for the rest of the future mother and her baby.
Eve of childbirth It is known that the “decision” to start the process is made by the baby, sending a tuple of hormones-messengers from the brain to the mother’s brain. Following this command, the real mobilization begins in the body of the future mother.
The concentration of progesterone in the blood of a woman is sharply reduced: he coped well with his role as a guard, and his work is finished, because now nothing should prevent the uterus from contracting.
In the first trimester, the body of the future mother has to quickly adapt to the “hormonal storm” surging at him. The number of certain hormones in the blood has now greatly increased, and all these peripetias, of course, affect the mood.
60% of women in this period feel like on a swing!
Source It is produced by a trophoblast – a layer of cells surrounding the ovum, and the progenitor of the placenta.
The role His appearance in the blood and urine in the very first days after fertilization proves that it is he who transfers the information to the ovary that the conception has taken place. This hormone stimulates the ovaries to produce progesterone until the placenta begins to release it.
I trimester On the seventh day of pregnancy, the size of the ovum, which is only a microscopic set of cells, is one-tenth of a millimeter. It cannot be seen with the naked eye, but it has already begun to produce its first and very important hormone – human chorionic gonadotropin (HGT). Without it, the fertilized egg simply could not stay in the uterus.
The hormone acts on the ovary, or rather on the corpus luteum – the remnant of the follicle from which the egg came out, so that it continues to produce progesterone, and the uterus has prepared a place on its mucous membrane to attach the fertilized egg. If CGT does not appear at the right moment, the yellow body will disappear in two weeks, the inner surface of the uterine mucosa will be torn off, and menstruation will begin.
It is HGT, or at least one of its forms – beta-HGT – that appears in the urine from the 14th day after conception, making the pregnancy test positive.
In anticipation of the baby, future mothers are gaining weight, even without changing the usual diet. How do they do it?
The hormone placental lactogen is now watching their appetite. One of his tasks is to provide a growing baby. my mom’s sugar.
And the woman’s body has to make up for the loss!
Owners of unstable menstrual cycle should prepare for pregnancy in advance – as doctors believe. Consult a miscarriage specialist to make sure that your hormones are able to withstand such loads.
If necessary, the doctor will prescribe drugs containing progesterone, which will help prepare the uterine lining to take and hold the “precious load” – a fertilized egg.
Who to contact? The local doctor of the antenatal clinic should give you a referral to the clinic, where there is a specialist in miscarriage.
If the results of tests (for the content of testosterone in the blood and 17x in the urine) show that the adrenal glands supply too many androgens into the blood of the expectant mother, doctors will call it hyperandrogenism. This state of affairs is threatened by the fact that the pregnancy is interrupted or stopped in its development.
Who to contact? This diagnosis is usually made by a miscarriage specialist; he prescribes treatment.
An obstetrician-gynecologist can refer you to him.
Deadline passed, and contractions do not appear? The prolonged waiting will not benefit the baby, so the expectant mother will be offered to come to the maternity hospital, where they will prepare her for childbirth with the help of estrogen or prostaglandin injections.
Who to contact? To the obstetrician-gynecologist who leads your pregnancy.
In order to establish labor activity, an obstetrician who conducts childbirth may prescribe oxytocin.
In this situation, the doctor who gave you the birth may decide to inject oxytocin and prostaglandins.
Source Before pregnancy, they are separated by the ovaries in the first half of the menstrual cycle, and with its onset – the adrenal glands and the placenta.
Role During pregnancy, the amount of estrogen should be low. Their time will come later when preparation for childbirth begins, because estrogens shorten and soften the cervix.
I trimester. They make the walls of the veins more permeable. Through them into the body enters the part of the blood liquid, consisting of water and proteins, which serves as food for the future baby.
Our skin gladly uses the moisturizing power of hormones, and most expectant mothers owe her wondrous appearance to estrogen. Their beneficial effect extends to the hair: they become bulky and shiny.
Eve of childbirth At this very time in the body of the future mother increases the content of estrogen. They, like the tissue hormones – prostaglandins, take care of the preparation of the cervix: under their influence, it shortens, becomes softer, so that later, during labor, open up and let the baby out.
Source He is secreted by the pituitary gland after the baby is born and during breastfeeding.
Role The hormone stimulates milk production and blocks the onset of menstruation. It is assumed that he acts on the maternal instinct, enhancing the child’s reflexes of protection.
After childbirth Prolactin, coupled with oxytocin, will provide milk production, stimulating the alveoli of the glandular breast tissue to its appearance. The longer the interval between feedings, the less will be the hormone in the blood of a young mother and the greater the chances of the next pregnancy. And when a woman stops breastfeeding her baby, the production of prolactin will decrease dramatically.
With his disappearance, the body of the young mother will return to the usual rhythm – monthly menstruation will appear, and the hardworking team of hormones will start working again, waiting. next conception.
His source excretes the pituitary gland shortly before giving birth, during and after them.
Role It acts on the muscles of the uterus, causing them to contract during labor, and then helps the uterus to return to its former size. And that’s not all: oxytocin is involved in the production of milk.
On the eve of labor For contractions to be effective, it is important to help oxytocin and prostaglandins (they are produced by almost all tissues), which will stimulate the contractions of the uterus until the baby is born. By the way, “hormones of joy” endorphins and “hormone of fear” adrenaline influence the production of oxytocin: the former increase the content of oxytocin, the latter – it decreases it.
Conclusion: do not be alarmed during childbirth!
After the release of the afterbirth, oxytocin and prostaglandins will help the uterus to contract; it will become dense, which will protect it from bleeding.
After childbirth As soon as a newborn crumb is attached to the mother’s breast, the sensitive breast receptors will inform the brain that it is time for milk to appear, and the pituitary and hypothalamus will begin to produce oxytocin. He is involved in muscle contraction, which helps milk to get into the baby’s mouth.
Unfortunately, the “postpartum” hormonal adjustment does not pass without a trace for a young mother: a sharp reduction in hormones after the birth of a baby can cause a breakdown and anxiety.
Serotonin and endorphins, which you have probably heard more than once, belong to a special category of neurotransmitter substances. These are not hormones, they rather play the role of their assistants – messengers transmitting pain impulses to nerve cells.
But their mission does not end there: serotonin and endorphins are considered natural painkillers. They appear at the moment when you need to “defuse” the situation in the body.
A striking example: record levels of these substances are recorded in the blood of women. during childbirth.