It happens that the spots on a tiny body look frightening, but usually do not worry. After the baby was born, the adaptation of the skin cells to the changed conditions begins. And most of the “tags” found in the crumbs, appear just as a result of the restructuring of the body in a new way.
They may fade with time, remain unchanged all their lives, disappear without any external intervention, but they may also increase in terms of both area and volume.
All spots found on the child’s body must be shown to the pediatrician before the baby is 6 months old. If necessary, he will give direction to the surgeon, who will suggest to be observed by a specialist or will determine the tactics of treatment.
It all depends on which group the “tag” seen on the baby’s body belongs to. There are four such groups: birthmarks (medial and Mongoloid spots of newborns) and pigment (actually pigmentary, as well as nevi, or birthmarks) spots, vascular (hemangiomas, telangiectosis) and viral (warts, papillomas) formations.
Medial spots of newborns are pink, flat, most often located on the forehead or on the back of the head, as well as on the upper eyelids, less often – on the lower back. They are the norm for every baby, they disappear with time and are not dangerous at all.
Mongoloid spots of blue or pale gray look like bruises. They are usually located on the back, buttocks, sometimes on the shoulders and legs.
A genetic predisposition is to blame for their appearance. Such “tags” appear in children, among whose ancestors were the Turks or Mongols.
Such spots do not cause harm, with age they can turn pale, but not disappear.
Pigment spots are called flat skin areas that differ in color from the main “coloration”. They have shades from light tan to dark brown, are located on any place and appear at any age.
This cosmetic defect does not pose any danger.
Teleangiectosis is the name of a small pink or red “star” on the skin that can appear anywhere. In the presence of such “tags” in the baby often find gastroduodenitis or other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
For this reason, doctors advise to do an ultrasound of the abdominal organs. Sometimes telangiectosis “signals” about problems with adenoids. It is necessary to cure the disease, as subcutaneous “stars” disappear.
In rare cases, when this does not happen, and parents want to save the child from such a purely cosmetic defect, they are removed.
There are also viral formations on the skin. They can appear in frequently ill children with weakened immunity after contact with a person who has this virus (for example, the herpes virus).
They are treated by a dermatologist with antiviral drugs.
A hemangioma is a congenital vascular benign tumor that is formed from small blood vessels that are located close to each other; often occurs at the stage of prenatal development. It looks like a red speck on the skin of the crumbs or a small bump under it.
It is believed that the cause of its occurrence – a viral or bacterial infection, which the woman suffered during pregnancy.
Such a stain can appear anywhere and can be of three types: simple (95% of cases), cavernous (4% of cases), combined (1% of cases).
In the first case, the child is born with a bright white “mark”, which stands out sharply on the skin. In about a month, it becomes noticeable and begins to grow upwards.
In depth, this bundle of incorrectly formed vessels never germinates. If at 4–5 months the hemangioma remains flat, then usually it goes away by 4–5 years.
If by 6 months it has become bulky, it should be treated.
Cavernous hemangiomas are located just under the skin and look like a bump or bruise. In such a situation, it is recommended to do an Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow velocity and see if there are large vessels in the tumor.
The treatment tactics depend on it.
Combined hemangiomas are located both above and below the skin.
Hemangioma must necessarily show the pediatric surgeon. He will observe it for several months and, if the stain increases, will determine the tactics of treatment. If the “tag” is extensive and is located in an anatomically difficult place – near the ears, on the neck, in the perineum, on the breast or face, the baby will be treated with medication.
For this purpose, drugs affecting the blood vessels are used. To find the optimal dose, the crumbs are hospitalized. In the hospital for 10–14 days, he will be under the constant supervision of cardiologists.
After returning home, the child takes the medicine for another six months. In the end, education will turn pale and resolve.
If a simple flat hemangioma with a diameter of less than 1 cm begins to grow, it is removed by laser. The procedure requires pain relief.
The same vascular bundle with a diameter of more than 1 cm is destroyed by cryodestruction – destruction by liquid nitrogen. From a small cavernous “bumps” get rid of, making an injection under the skin destroying her drug.
If it is more than 4–5 cm, an operation is required. Combined hemangioma treatment is also required combined: for the subcutaneous part – injection, for the cutaneous – exposure to liquid nitrogen.
Cryotherapy is considered the most effective method of getting rid of hemangiomas. Its essence lies in the fact that under the influence of cold “wrong” cells die off themselves.
The procedure itself lasts about a minute. With the help of a special apparatus, in which liquid nitrogen is poured, a small copper disc applicator cooled by this chemical is applied to the stain.
Under the action of cold (the temperature of liquid nitrogen is -196 ° C), the hemangioma for 10–15 seconds (if it is on the mucous membrane) and for 20–25 seconds (if it is on the skin) freezes to a depth of 2-3 mm. Sensations from the “ice kiss”, of course, not the most pleasant, but the baby does not feel pain.
Right in front of the parents and the child, the stain thaws, and after a few hours a flat bubble appears in its place. It is treated in the same way as any abrasion, to the formation of a crust, which appears after 5-7 days.
In about a month, she will disappear, leaving a pink scar. After 3-4 months, it will become almost indistinguishable from healthy skin.
This method allows you to remove a small hemangioma in just one session, and a large one in several procedures.
Even more closely, we must observe the moles, or, as doctors call them, nevi. These benign tumors are formed from skin cells – melanocytes, which produce a dark pigment – melanin.
The appearance of moles depends on the depth of the melanocytes. If they are located close to the surface, the tumor is dark and is flush with the skin or slightly above it. If the pigment cells are found deep under the skin, the mole is light and strongly elevated above the skin.
Such nevi, as well as tumors larger than 5 mm at least once a year should be shown to a dermatologist, oncologist or surgeon, as there is a risk of their transformation into malignant ones. About once a year it is necessary to come to the inspection and children who have a lot of nevi.
Indeed, in this case, it is rather difficult to track their activity.
As a child grows up, some moles appear, others disappear, their outlines, sizes, shades of color change. This is the norm. The main thing is that for half a year a nevus should increase by no more than 5 mm, and its color remains uniform.
The risk factor is: trauma, an abrupt change in color, for example, a strong darkening, peeling, inflammation (when a red rim appears around the nevus) and compaction. Due to trauma, the mole may be deformed or infected. This is dangerous because, trying to “heal” the damaged area, the body will begin to produce new melanocytes.
How they will behave cannot be predicted. In other cases, a nevus must also be shown to a dermatologist, because the listed symptoms suggest activation of the neoplasm.
First, the child must be shown to a pediatric dermatologist. He can send a baby to a pediatric oncologist in order to exclude a malignant tumor. You should not be afraid of such a turn of events: this is a generally accepted medical practice.
In any case, the doctor will recommend or remove a nevus, or come again for a visit in six months – a year.
An oncologist examines a mole using a dermatoscope. This device allows you to assess the color, contour and shape of the tumor, having considered it under a 20-fold increase.
If cracks are detected and the nevus is bleeding, a smear is taken from the surface and sent for cytology (under a microscope).
Be sure to get rid of moles located in traumatic places: on the scalp, groin, mucous membranes, on the perineum, neck. The method of removal depends on the diagnosis.
A dermatologist deals with superficial neoplasms, an oncologist deals with doubtful and deep ones. Nevi are surgically removed, excising the mole with a scalpel, using electrocautery (electric shock), laser and cryodestruction. The specific method, which depends on the size, location, age of the child, should recommend a doctor.
After removal, the nevus is necessarily sent for histological examination. In the overwhelming majority of cases, it dispels all fears and recognizes a mole as benign.