Although the first trimester is traditionally considered to be key, the importance of the next three months should not be underestimated. Most of the tests have already been submitted, with a normal pregnancy, regular visits to the antenatal clinic will be enough. In the mom’s belly, the baby can not only move, hear, feel, but also rejoice and grieve.
All the emotions he receives from his mother, so she should take care of a positive attitude, less upset and upset. It will not be out of place to enroll in courses for pregnant women and learn the technique of proper breathing: this will improve the baby’s blood supply and, consequently, increase the supply of oxygen and nutrients to it.
Mama. It’s time to think about updating the wardrobe: pants with a narrowed waist will have to be postponed until better times.
The best trimester of pregnancy awaits you: plan your affairs so that you can complete them by the end of the 27th week, later a big belly can prevent you.
Kid. The rudiments of milk teeth are already formed, villi appear in the intestine, which play an important role in the digestive process. The baby learns to go to the toilet “in a small way”: the kidneys and ureters begin to work.
They release urine that enters the amniotic fluid. The pancreas produces insulin.
Mama. There is growth and stretching of the milky ducts, breast sensitivity increases.
On the skin, the venous pattern appears more clearly, the Montgomery tubercles are raised – small glands on the surface of the areas, the discharge from which will protect the nipples during feeding.
Kid. By this time, the laying-out of the internal organs of the unborn child and the formation of the placenta, which is responsible for the supply of oxygen and nutrients and the withdrawal of waste metabolic products, ends. In addition, the function of the baby seat is to protect the baby from exposure to harmful substances from the external environment.
The baby’s brain is actively developing – furrows and gyrus appear in it, and now it looks like a walnut. Scarce knows how to smile!
The first eyebrows, eyelashes and hair on the head appear.
Mama. Increased blood circulation significantly increased the load on small blood vessels, especially the capillaries in the gums and sinuses: minor bleeding occurs – there is nothing to worry about.
Experienced (reborn) mothers define them by 17–18 weeks; pregnant with the first child, especially noticeably gaining weight – a little later.
Kid. The formation of the immune system ends, the crumb can independently synthesize interferon and immunoglobulins. The baby becomes more active: legs are repelled from one wall of the uterus and swims to another.
Original lubricant appears on the skin of the child – it is produced by the sebaceous glands to protect against germs.
Mama. By the end of the first half of pregnancy, there were big changes in the woman’s body.
Increased cardiac output; slightly increased blood pressure; growing uterus, squeezing the bladder, causes frequent urination. It’s time to start wearing a bandage.
Kid. The child’s weight is already 300–350 g, he swallows the amniotic fluid. External genitals are formed – now the floor of the baby is clearly visible on the ultrasound.
The child forms the vestibular apparatus, the organ responsible for the sense of balance.
Mama. The following weeks will take you to gain weight, as the baby will begin to put on fat.
Your appetite will increase, because an accelerated metabolism will require additional kilocalories from you. Lack of appetite control can cause weight gain.
Kid. The child’s weight is 400–450 g. His muscles and bone system develop rapidly, and calcium is needed for that.
Marigolds appear on the fingers and toes.
Mama. As weight gains you may feel worse.
Typically, headaches, cramps in the legs, baby’s jolts become painful and often interfere with sleep. Try falling asleep lying on your side.
Kid. Despite the small weight, the child is already considered viable.
Under the skin accumulates fat, and the baby “rounded.” The lungs make movements similar to the respiratory ones. They are filled with fetal fluid that is squeezed out at birth — the baby gets oxygen through the placenta.
Mama. In late periods, the level of cholesterol in the blood rises: this is normal.
Cholesterol is an important building material for the placenta that produces hormones, which are necessary for the maintenance of labor. But the ban on harmful products is still in force!
The uterus prepares for childbirth: Braxton-Hicks painless contractions appear. They are not dangerous if their frequency and intensity do not increase.
If you have any unpleasant feelings – immediately contact a doctor!
Kid. Weight – 700-750 g. The child is improving the endocrine system.
The nervous system becomes more and more perfect: if the mother’s belly is lit with a bright lamp, the child moves more actively.
Despite the fact that in the first trimester many tests were taken, visits to the antenatal clinic will have to continue.
Medical specialists. It is obligatory to visit only your obstetrician-gynecologist (and, of course, those medical specialists that you did not have time to visit in the first trimester of pregnancy). The doctor still controls the course of pregnancy: evaluates weight gain, measures the abdominal circumference and the height of the uterus standing over the womb, determines blood pressure and listens to the heartbeat of the fetus.
If necessary, he will issue a referral to a specialist.
Analyzes What tests you have to pass in the II trimester?
- The blood count is especially important for a doctor for hemoglobin levels.
- Vaginal smear on the microflora (smear microscopy).
- Urine analysis once a month.
- Prenatal screening (blood test triple test for hormone levels of hCG, AFP and estriol).
Typically, the timing of the triple test is prescribed on the 15-20th week. Its meaning lies in the study of markers of malformations and genetic pathology of the fetus: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), free human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estriol (E3).
The diagnostic value of the triple test will be 90% for the detection of malformations of the nervous system and 60−70% for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities.
According to the results of the triple test, no diagnosis is made, but the probability of pathologies is simply estimated. With more detailed counseling, invasive (with penetration into the amniotic cavity) diagnostic methods are possible. To do this, pierce the anterior abdominal wall with a thin needle, take a little amniotic fluid in which it is possible to isolate the cells of the child.
This procedure is called amniocentesis. With the same purpose, you can hold cordocentesis – take a few drops of umbilical cord blood for analysis.
These procedures are carried out under the control of ultrasound, take 10−15 minutes and painless; nevertheless, so that the future mother is not nervous, she is usually offered light intravenous anesthesia.
Not all medical institutions have the opportunity to carry out surveys on markers of chromosomal pathology, but genetics consultation is mandatory for the risk group – this is age after 35 years, birth of children with developmental defects, radiation exposure of one of the spouses, taking medications for epilepsy, suspicion of pathology based on the results Ultrasound.
Ultrasound. At the 24th to 26th week, a second routine ultrasound is performed, which is used to study the structure of the baby’s body, determine the sex of the child, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid, the place of attachment of the placenta and its quality.
During this period, many changes occur in the body of the future mother: the bottom of the uterus is determined above the womb, and the stomach looks like a hill above the pubic joint.
The breasts swell, the ranges of the nipples darken, and one of them begins to stand out colostrum – immature milk, intended for feeding the baby after birth. The volume of circulating blood increases by about 40%, and the heart slightly increases in size in order to have time to pump it.
With the increase in gestational age, problems with the gastrointestinal tract increase. During this period, the work of the intestines should be monitored, since the uterus grows after the baby, the stomach is pressed against the diaphragm, the intestines are also moved apart by the growing uterus. In this case, a balanced diet with a high content of fiber helps, the use of any medication is permissible only after consulting a doctor.
Pressure on the abdominal organs can also cause hemorrhoids: this is due to the varicose veins of the rectum.
Heartburn – a burning sensation behind the sternum – also increases with the growth of the child. The fact is that the esophagus is separated from the stomach by a circular muscle. During pregnancy, progesterone levels rise, and this hormone relaxes smooth muscle tissue, including the esophageal sphincter.
The acidic contents of the stomach are thrown back into the esophagus, which contributes to increased intra-abdominal pressure. But do not forget that heartburn can be a symptom of latent diseases.
If this condition causes you serious concern, tell your doctor about it. One should refrain from self-administration of antacid agents, limiting oneself with the use of non-carbonated alkaline mineral water.
It is better to refuse to wear tight compression clothing.
Due to the increased hormonal activity, vaginal secretions with a milky-sour odor appear. Changes in the results of tests due to a weakened immunity are possible: be vigilant if you are offered a course of antibiotics for the treatment of opportunistic flora.
Be sure to consult with another doctor.
Elevated levels of another hormone, estrogen, are designed to hold fluid to feed the placenta. This causes swelling of the hands, ankles, the appearance of bags under the eyes.
Limit the consumption of salt and liquid at night, and completely abandon the use of strong tea, coffee, sugary carbonated drinks.
The state of the veins during pregnancy also does not change for the better, and this is not always reversible. Breasts, thighs may be crossed out by thin reddish spider webs – the so-called superficial varicose veins, which in principle do not require treatment and pass after delivery (or corrected with the help of salon cosmetic manipulations). With a family predisposition or multiple pregnancy, varicose veins may develop in the legs.
As the uterus grows, pressure on the inferior vena cava increases (located on the right side), the load on the leg veins increases. Since blood volume is increased, progesterone weakened the walls of blood vessels, the deformity of the veins is inevitable.
Sometimes the appearance of pale bluish lines becomes the only manifestation of varicose veins. Nodes, or varicose bumps, are a collection of stagnant blood in places where gravity is most powerful, right down to the rectum and vagina: they are often painful.
Preventive measures will help prevent this disease: control your weight (those extra pounds aggravate varicose veins), in the supine position try to keep your legs above body level (putting a cushion or pillow), give up on slimming clothing, wear compression tights that promote blood circulation.