Doctors call newborn babies from the moment they were born until the 28th day of life. This period is considered very difficult and responsible for the little man. During this time, all his systems have to completely restructure and learn to live outside the mother’s body.
If the child used to breathe and eat and get rid of the “waste” with the help of mom, now he has to do it himself. The whole first month the baby adapts to new conditions, and at this time his body is in a state of unstable equilibrium, since the organs and systems have not yet been completely formed. It is not surprising that small failures may arise in their work – doctors call them borderline states.
Such temporary violations are natural and, as a rule, soon pass by themselves.
In order for each cell of the child to receive oxygen, which was delivered through the placenta and the umbilical cord before birth, the entire circulatory system changes in a matter of seconds after birth. The ducts that were necessary during pregnancy are closed in the heart, and the blood begins to flow in a new route, actively supplying the lungs that were inactive before birth. Metabolism occurs in an infant much more intensely, and it breathes twice as often as an adult, making about 30 respiratory movements per minute.
His heart beats like a runner after a 100 meter (up to 130–140 beats per minute, whereas you and I have 60–80).
At the moments of loading – and for a newborn this is both feeding, and changing clothes, and medical examination – the heartbeat and breathing become more frequent. Sometimes moms have to hear a real sniff – this is the “merit” of the narrow nasal passages of the child. By the way, for the same reason, even small nasal crusts or a light cold can give your baby anxiety.
So, it is very important to monitor the condition of the nose and regularly clean it with a cotton flagella (but not a stick), especially if the apartment has dry air.
In the first three days after birth, all babies lose weight, usually 4–6% of the original indicators. The reason is that the body is actively released from the original feces and loses fluid through the skin and lungs. And the young mother has not enough milk to compensate for the loss.
But by the 10th day, children usually return to the weight with which they were born, and after the 2nd week they begin to add about 200 g each week.
If the loss is more than 10% of the weight, or the baby is not good at restoring it, this most often indicates a lack of nutrition (less often about any health problems). Mom first of all should try to strengthen lactation, as often as possible putting the baby to the chest, day and night. To control the baby will need to weigh before and after each feeding.
On the first day, the newborn sucks only 5–10 ml for feeding, but every day adds about 10 ml to a single portion, eating up to 20 ml on the second day in one set, on the third day – up to 30 ml, and so on. From the 2nd week onwards, the volume of a single portion is calculated based on the fact that a child eats the amount of milk equal to 1/5 of his weight per day, and dividing this number by the number of feedings.
By the end of the 1st month, the baby can drink as much as 100–120 ml of milk at a time.
In the first 3-4 days of life, the baby gets rid of the dark, sticky feces – meconium, which has accumulated in his intestines six months before birth. After it is completely out, instead of it in the diaper there appears a gruel of olive or yellowish tint, resembling liquid sour cream in consistency, without an unpleasant odor.
“Big” toilet babies usually commit 3-7 times a day, and sometimes more often after each feeding. In the second week, the baby’s stool may become more frequent and fluid – this is a natural reaction to colonization of the bowel, which is sterile from birth, with all sorts of bacteria.
The situation is getting better in about a week, and by the end of the first month the chair becomes thicker, more uniform and becomes yellow. It can contain white lumps of undigested milk and small streaks of mucus.
“Small” toilet in newborns also has its own characteristics. In the first 2–3 days of life, the baby urinates very little (or even does without it), because it eats little and loses a lot of fluid during breathing and through the skin.
By the end of the first week of urination become more frequent, up to 10-15 times a day. In the first few days of the week, the urine of a child may be a brick shade due to the fact that it contains a large amount of salts – urates, but returns to normal in about a week.
The mechanisms of thermoregulation in newborns are not yet established, and therefore the baby can very easily overheat and supercool. To warm up due to movement or to cool through sweating, the crumb is not yet able, which is why it is important for adults to keep an eye on its comfort. In the first days of life, children need “warm” conditions to adapt to an abrupt change in temperature (from 36.6 ° C inside mother’s body to 22–23 ° C in rodbloke), which is why children are wrapped in several diapers in a maternity hospital and does put in a special heated hood.
But after discharge from the maternity hospital, the child does not need excessive warmth: the optimal temperature for babies is 20–22 ºС.
Due to imperfect thermoregulation in infants, body temperature may be slightly increased: rates up to 37.3 ° C are considered a variant of the norm. The crumb can “heat up” and when overheated: the baby is anxious, reddens, his skin becomes hot and moist to the touch, a small reddish rash – prickly heat can appear on it. But when overcooling, the baby’s skin turns pale and to the touch becomes cooler than the palm of an adult.
During the walk that the child is cold, they will report a cold nose and neck.
The skin of newborn babies is penetrated by a thicker than in adults, a network of capillaries and is abundantly supplied with blood. Its upper layer – the epidermis – is almost 10 times thinner than in adults, and the local immunity is still very weak.
Because of this, it is more prone to edema and is very sensitive, blush easily.
On the 2-3rd day of life, the baby’s skin may become yellowish – in this case, doctors talk about physiological jaundice. This phenomenon is associated with a change in the composition of the infant’s blood cells.
Bilirubin, which is formed during the replacement of the “prenatal” fetal hemoglobin with a new form, is not fully utilized by immature liver enzymes and paints the skin and mucous membranes in yellow. As the liver begins to work at full strength, the skin color gradually returns to normal without any treatment.
This usually happens by the 10–14th day; if the situation does not change for more than two weeks, the baby will need treatment.
The baby’s skin easily absorbs any substance, and urine and feces, falling on its surface, quickly lead to diaper rash. So, on the one hand, you should not abuse children’s cosmetic products (if the skin is not dry, you should not lubricate the whole body with cream), but on the other hand, it is important to carefully care for particularly sensitive areas, especially the buttocks and genitals.
After each “big” toilet, the baby needs to be washed with a baby gel (wet wipes are not enough), wipe dry, and then apply the cream under the diaper on the anus, buttocks, crotch, hip folds.
If the sweat glands in newborns are poorly developed, the sebaceous are already working at full strength, and sometimes even too active. And since the excretory ducts of the skin of a child are not yet fully opened, the greasy secret accumulated in them can cause the appearance of white bumps, the so-called Miles.
Up to 1 month, they may occasionally appear on the face of a baby, and then disappear without any intervention.
Excessive activity of the sebaceous glands can also lead to the fact that on the head of the baby there will be dense yellowish scales – gneiss. You can get rid of them in a simple way: half an hour before bathing, lubricate the baby’s head with baby oil, brush your hair in front of the bathroom with a soft brush, and then rinse with shampoo.
In the first week of life, due to the termination of the supply of mother’s hormones in the child’s body, a hormonal crisis may occur. Regardless of the sex of the babies, the mammary glands swell (sometimes yellow colostrum is even released), and the genitals swell.
And girls sometimes have bloody or mucous discharge from the vagina. All these situations do not require any intervention from the mother and pass by themselves in a couple of weeks.