Vitamin A plays an important role in the activation of immunity, ensures the growth of the unborn child and the development of the placenta, participates in the formation of visual pigments. It improves the well-being of pregnant women, normalizes sleep and heart function.
Its predecessor, beta-carotene, actively fights infections, promotes wound healing, protects cellular structures from destruction.
Vitamins of group B. B1 (thiamine) strengthens the nervous and cardiovascular systems, improves appetite; B2 (riboflavin) is involved in the metabolism, is one of the growth vitamins, affects the formation of bones, muscles and nervous system of the future baby; B5 (pantothenic acid) is involved in suppressing inflammation, helps to cope with stress, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system of the future mother; B12 regulates the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates; Biotin supports thyroid function and is important for generating energy from glucose.
Folic acid (vitamin B9) is present in some vitamin complexes for better absorption in the biologically active form of methyl folate. It ensures the growth and development of the unborn child, reduces its risk of developing defects of the nervous system.
Pregnant women need to receive 400-800 mcg of this nutrient per day.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – the worst enemy of all diseases, detrimental effect on bacteria, neutralizes toxins, increases resistance to infections, stimulates the immune system and increases efficiency.
Most of the vitamin D is synthesized in the skin by ultraviolet rays. To avoid its deficiency, one should walk at least twice a week with open limbs from 10 to 15 hours. Alas, in the winter in such a form to be on the street for five hours is problematic.
Meanwhile, vitamin D is needed to maintain the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the woman’s body, the formation of the skeleton and the teeth of the unborn child. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain this nutrient in the amount of 800–1200 IU / day.
Vitamin E has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, retina and muscular tissue, is involved in the synthesis of hormones and ensures the normal growth of the future baby. The lack of this nutrient is associated with the risks of premature birth and spontaneous abortion in early terms.
Trace elements Selenium and manganese support immunity, iodine is involved in the formation of thyroid hormones, affects the maturation of the brain of the future baby and determines its intelligence. According to WHO experts, iodine deficiency in the body is the most common cause of mental retardation.
In the second half of pregnancy, anemia often develops. Additional iron supplementation in the vitamin-mineral complex will help prevent it.
The colder on the street, the more we are drawn to carbohydrate-rich food, because it supplies extra energy. And in the cold, the body intuitively chooses simple, fast carbohydrates, which are contained in sweets, white flour bread and pasta. They are easily digested and allow you to quickly satisfy hunger and warm up.
At the same time, a pregnant woman gains extra pounds. The alternative is complex, slow carbohydrates – starch and fiber. These are cereals, beans and legumes, brown rice, green vegetables, cereal bread, etc.
Fiber, being a source of energy, stimulates the gastrointestinal tract, provides favorable conditions for the existence of beneficial intestinal microflora.
Expectant mothers should prefer protein foods. In the second half of pregnancy, you need to get about 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of weight per day.
Almost all of the protein will go on the growth and formation of baby tissue.
Due to the growing abdomen, the center of gravity shifts and the load on the spine increases. To maintain stability, buy shoes with a grooved sole, a free shaft and a wide toe.
The maximum height of the heel is 3 cm. Clothes should be multi-layered: under a warm sweater and pants, it is best to wear a cotton T-shirt or long-sleeved blouse and tights made of natural fabric, including compression knitwear.
The latter is made of porous material, you can easily put on woolen trousers, leggings, etc. Multi-layeredness will help to keep the heat outside and not sweat indoors, because at any moment something from the clothes can be removed.
It is also recommended to use thermal underwear (models for pregnant women take into account the growing belly): it helps to regulate the temperature of the body, it is practically impossible to sweat in it, which means it can overcool.
And remember: any fall, especially on the side or on the stomach, is a reason to visit a doctor. If after the fall there is pain, strain of the uterus, the baby has calmed down or has become too active to move, it is better to make a visit to the doctor as soon as possible.
A fall can provoke a pregnancy complication, therefore it is necessary to evaluate the general condition of the mother and child: listen to the baby’s heartbeat, and if necessary, make an ultrasound.
For the prevention of acute respiratory viral infections, the risk of which increases in the winter, it is recommended to take vitamin-mineral complexes, walk more. Before going out and after coming home, you should gargle (even with plain boiled water) and rinse your nose with saline solutions. But the main protection against influenza will be vaccination.
Influenza virus is potentially dangerous for the unborn child and can cause serious complications in the future mother. Timely vaccination will help at times reduce the risk. Vaccination is in medical institutions.
A woman should be examined by a doctor and discussed in detail with her. Modern vaccines are fragments of the cell membrane of the virus and are safe for the baby.
Vaccination is possible after 12 weeks of pregnancy. The vaccine provides protection for 6–12 months.