Adaptation of the child to the kindergarten is the adaptation of the child to the new conditions of the preschool institution, to the teachers and the new children’s team. A child in 2–3 years is still strongly attached to his mother, and separation from her and from close people is very difficult for him.
Normally, all children who have a warm and close relationship with their mother show common symptoms of adaptation.
The number of diseases increases, often colds; temperature may slightly increase – the manifestation of the body’s defenses in response to changes in the usual living conditions.
The child becomes more excitable, tearful, upset over trifles, begins to experience more fears, and the main one – that close people will not take him from kindergarten.
There may be behaviors that are characteristic of younger children, especially those who have recently had a brother or sister.
Speech as if regresses – adjectives and nouns disappear, the baby begins to use simplified words.
There are negative emotions, mostly anger. Vulnerability increases.
The child can also be either severely inhibited, or uncontrollably hyperactive.
Disturbed appetite. Children can either completely refuse to eat, or eat little and rarely.
Sometimes the child starts to overeat.
Sleep in babies can become restless and intermittent.
All this is a normal reaction of the child’s body and psyche to new conditions of life. The indicated symptoms disappear when the child finally gets used to kindergarten.
In the younger preschool age, girls adapt more easily than boys, who are more emotionally attached to their mother.
Children with choleric and sanguine temperament adapt more easily. Most difficult phlegmatic accounted for.
They do not keep up with the pace of kindergarten. And here it is important for parents to inform the caregiver about the features of the child, so that the teacher can take into account the individual characteristics of the baby when organizing the educational process in the kindergarten group.
Children who have older brothers / sisters have less adaptation problems. The experience of communicating with older children facilitates the process of establishing contacts with peers in a group.
If the older children in the family already attend kindergarten, for a baby this is a positive example of the fact that a preschool institution for children poses no danger.
If the adaptation period accounts for the birth of another baby in the family, then the older one may begin to be jealous of the mother for the newborn. A visit to a kindergarten by a child begins to be perceived as a desire of parents to get rid of him and an attempt to devote all attention to the baby.
There are different degrees of adaptation to kindergarten: light, medium and heavy (the latter is called maladaptation).
With a mild degree, the child adapts to the new environment for several weeks, without visible changes in behavior and without much hassle for parents and educators.
When adapting a moderate severity, the child adapts to the new team for more than a month and may get sick.
With a severe degree of adaptation, it takes more than half a year, the baby is often sick for a long time, his behavior and emotional state are sharply disturbed.
Problems during pregnancy (toxicosis, infectious and chronic diseases of the mother, smoking, alcohol use, complications during childbirth (surgery, asphyxia, birth injury).
Excessive custody of the child’s parents, a strong emotional attachment of the child to the mother. Anxiety and fears of the mother about the child’s stay in kindergarten are involuntarily taken over by the child.
Adaptation of a child is complicated by private and protracted conflicts in the family.
Uncommunicative, contactless parents. Most often, these parents have an uncommunicative child, which in the future will impede the process of establishing relationships with peers in kindergarten.
Wrong type of education: excessive care or, on the contrary, lack of attention to the child.
The absence of one of the parents with increased demands on the child.
Chronic or congenital disease.
Take the baby to visit, children’s entertainment, theaters, parks. The kid should be taught to such conditions in which he will have to adapt to new conditions and change the forms of his behavior.
A pediatrician will evaluate the possibility of the influence of prenatal and postnatal factors. You can send a child to the garden, provided that he is healthy.
For the year, begin to conduct tempering activities – this will strengthen the overall physical condition of the child and the nervous system of the baby.
You must understand the seriousness of the experiences and fears of the child. At the same time, one should not show the child his own fears and anxiety for him before entering kindergarten. In preschool institutions there are professionals who have extensive experience in working with children, can choose an individual approach to your child and help him to get used to the kindergarten faster.
Remember that children attending kindergarten have more advantages in personal and intellectual development.
Speak with a child only positively about kindergarten and teacher. Tell us about your childhood experiences about kindergarten. Pay attention to the child what he will do there, what the new will learn, that he will have good friends.
If possible, go with the child to the children’s matinee or sports older children. All this will allow the child to form pleasant ideas about kindergarten.
Give to kindergarten your favorite toy that will not allow you to feel lonely.
Keep in mind that adaptation to kindergarten for a child is not an easy process, accompanied by changes in his behavior and emotional state. Try to minimize the influence of various factors that complicate the adaptation, understand the seriousness of the experiences and fears of the child.
The crisis of three years is accompanied by a whole complex of “negative” behavioral reactions: rebellion, self-will, disobedience, whims, and so on. This will complicate the adaptation process.
Show your child that he is still dear to you and loved. Be attentive to various behavioral and emotional reactions. It should not be severely punished during this period for disobedience and whims, for excessive activity or, conversely, passivity.
Parenting style should be flexible and depend on the characteristics of the child, the degree of complexity of his adaptation. At home, give your child the opportunity to relieve stress, play outdoor games, fully express their emotions.
Avoid conflicts and large family quarrels. Pay enough attention to the child, ask how the day in kindergarten was, what was interesting. You can express pride in the child that he is such an adult and independent.
In the evening, talk with your child about how he will be the next day, express sincere interest in the child’s stay in the pre-school institution. Keep your child interested in kindergarten.
In the evenings and on weekends, play with your child in quiet family games, listen to quiet music, read books, sing songs. Spend “five minutes” before going to bed: stay a few minutes with the child, stroke him on the head, back, share something joyful that happened to you during the day, rejoice at the child’s achievements.
One month before adaptation, ask your teacher for the features of the kindergarten group’s regime and enter it at home. Teach your child all possible self-care skills (wash hands, face, eat by yourself, dress and undress by yourself or with the help of an adult).
During the adaptation period, it is desirable to reduce the number of emotionally saturated events (trips to theaters, on a visit). It is desirable that the moment of adaptation of the child fell on the leave of the mother, and a close person took away and took away the child.
The most favorable period for adaptation is the middle of summer. At this time, the child is not yet weakened immunity, he can spend a lot of time with children on a walk. Learn from the teacher when a smaller number of children enter the group at the same time.
It is easier for the teacher to pay attention to each child when the kids enter kindergarten at a different time period.
No one knows your baby better than you. Tell the tutor group about the features of the child. If something has disturbed you in the child’s behavior, consult with the teacher how best to act in the situation that has arisen.
Listen to the advice of a caregiver. Each teacher has his own “secrets”, tricks on how to help the child more easily adapt to the kindergarten.
Come with your child to play on the playground of the kindergarten. Let the baby meet with other children, with caregivers, look at the new situation.
Join with the child in the general games of children,. Bring a set of toys with which all children can play. Mark how interesting and fun the child is to play with the children of the group, what a kind teacher.
Teach your child to stay on the playground with a teacher and children without you. You can leave the child for a walk for half an hour – an hour and clearly and in detail designate what will happen to the child at this hour and what you will do.
Be sure to return at the appointed time.
Attend day walks with your child at the kindergarten. Every day, increase the time of your absence in kindergarten. Bring your child to kindergarten in the morning with all the children.
By agreement with the teacher, you can be present in the group and from the side to observe the child. The presence of parents, even passive, for the child creates an atmosphere of security.
Leave the child in kindergarten until a quiet hour and be sure to tell him what time you will come, what you and the child will do in your absence. Come at the promised time!
Any lateness causes the child to feel anxious and insecure.
Leave the child for a quiet hour. To make the child easier to calm down and fall asleep faster, give him a favorite soft toy. Do not worry – teachers will be able to find a way to your child and help him relax during a quiet sleep.
Come for the child a little earlier than the children wake up – it is better if the child, upon awakening from sleep, will immediately see you.
This plan is approximate. The number of days at each stage will depend on the characteristics of the child. It is important to be attentive to his emotional state and to talk about the features of your baby’s behavior that concern you to the teacher.