The well-known teacher Vasily Sukhomlinsky said: “The child’s mind is at his fingertips.” It has long been a lot of talk about the relationship between the movement of the fingers and the formation of speech crumbs.
Finger games contribute to the mental development of the child, stimulate the development of his speech, creativity and imagination. And even if it seems to you that the child’s speech apparatus and vocabulary are all in order, this does not mean that he is well controlled with his own hands.
The weak muscular tone of the fingers can turn into a serious load for him in the lower grades, because apart from mastering a large amount of new information, he will have to learn to hold the handle in unruly fingers for a long time. If you want your crumb to not only speak well, but also learn quickly and easily, from an early age begin to develop his hands – fingers and hands!
The development of fine motor skills in a baby is a task feasible for any mom. This is not so much the use of special professional techniques, as an interesting game using the simplest available tools. With its help, the kids not only develop the muscles of the fingers, but also learn a lot of new things about the surrounding objects, their properties, get acquainted with the concepts of form and volume, learn colors.
And “finger” fun is a fun and emotional way of communication, which will bring a lot of pleasure to you and the baby.
Fine motor skills will develop naturally, regardless of whether you will train it purposefully or not. The huge difference will be in how much the muscles of the fingers will be developed. If you start practicing with baby from birth, the first capture of the object with your fingers will occur in 1.5-2 months, not 3 and later, as usual.
Transfer the items from hand to hand the baby will also learn earlier and will do it more cleverly.
Literally from birth, you can massage the palm, the back of the handle and each finger. Accompany the lesson is best childish rhymes and fun poteshkami.
Change the tone of voice, speed of speech, pause, underline individual words, tell fun and expressively. The main thing that it caused an emotional response to the baby.
Remember that the best toy for him now is yourself!
– touch the fingers of the crumbs, hold each of them to your lips and kiss;
– make circular movements with each finger, first one way and then the other;
– put small balls (3-4 cm in diameter) balls of various materials into children’s hands – this develops good tactile sensations. The kid should grab them and try to keep them;
– From 1.5 months start to train the grasp reflex. Substitute your baby’s index fingers to your palms and wait until he grabs them. Then gently pull the baby towards you, slightly lifting and lifting the head from the surface.
Do not forget to insure the crumb: the fingers are still very weak and can open at any moment!
At this age, you will notice that a crumb can grab the other hand (or its leg) with one hand and look at it for a long time. At about the same time, he begins to reach for objects and actively grab them, and by the end of the fifth month – to take the object with both hands. It’s time to prepare for the first words.
Early? Not at all!
After all, in tiny fingers there are areas directly connected with speech centers – it is time to actively stimulate them.
– take a small ball or a ball, put it in the baby’s palms and, holding the child’s hands in your hands, squeeze and twist it (you can substitute a walnut);
– play soft cams (squeeze the crumbs of your hand into a weak fist, into which you can easily stick your index finger) and strong ones that you cannot lift;
– do “combing” – exercise, strengthening the muscles of the shoulder girdle, palms, fingers. Turn the baby’s hands one by one up and move them smoothly along the head back and forth;
– continue to massage: gently knead each finger, each phalanx. You can complete the massage before bedtime with the following exercise: take the crumbs in your hand and begin to bend your fingers in order from the little finger in order, saying:
“This finger wants to sleep,
This finger went to bed
This finger really took a nap,
This finger already fell asleep
This is fast asleep –
And he tells you to sleep! ”
The actions of both hands of the child are coordinated. For example, he can take a toy cat with one hand and stroke it with the other. He is already confidently shifting the subject from hand to hand, and he really likes to throw it.
For six-month-old babies, you can make interesting and useful toys for developing fine motor skills on your own from available tools. Give the crumbs your old beads (just make sure that the thread is strong enough) – his small fingers will deftly touch the beads on the thread.
* Take a magazine and show how you can tear, crumple and crumple paper. The baby can be enticed for a long time with this game, especially if it unusually rustles.
* Another way to have fun with paper and at the same time strengthen the muscles of the fingers is to wrap your favorite rattle in it. Take a few napkins, wrap them in a rounded rattle or just a small ball.
Make it so that the baby sees all your actions. Then ask him to find the item. If it does not work out right away, help the crumbs and be sure to praise and rejoice when he finds the hidden toy.
You can also use bright rustling candy wrappers for this game.
* Add small-sized pyramids to collaborative games. At first, the baby will only remove the rings, but very soon he will learn how to string them.
Teach the baby to unscrew and twist the caps on the bottles, as well as turn over the hard pages of children’s books.
At this age, it is already possible to play games of Russian folk art with a child – such as “Forty-White-sided”, “Ladushki”, “Goat Horned”. They are of great importance for the development of fine motor skills: firstly, absolutely all fingers are drawn into action, and secondly, memory is well trained, and the crumb very quickly remembers words and movements, if you practice it a little every day.
* From the age of eight months, you can use salt dough or soft clay mass to practice. Teach your child to pinch off small pieces of a large piece, press on them and spread them over a hard surface.
It helps to develop the flexibility and mobility of the fingers.
* Very good at this age are rubber toys-tweeters that help strengthen the muscles of the fingers. Practice the following exercise: Speak the rhyme, and the child must squeeze and unclench the duckling toy in his hand in time with the syllables.
“You, duckling, not food, Look for your mother better” (the game can be continued, replacing the duckling with a kitten, a goat, etc.).
The child eagerly repeats the actions of adults: he presses the buttons on the phone and brings it to his ear, takes a pen and tries to draw. He starts demanding to hold a spoon, a bottle on his own – allow him that, even if he has to clean up a bit! The one-year-old baby already controls his movements quite well: he quietly holds the toys in his hands (both in the palm of his hand and his fingers), turns them around, throws them, pushes them, he opens and parses the boxes, puts one object into another.
But in order for hand movements to become more perfect and confident, it is necessary to continue to train fine motor skills further.
– offer your child to disassemble and assemble the pyramid;
– practice the skill of opening and closing boxes and cans. It is desirable that the covers were of different sizes, then it will be easier for the child to pick them up.
Covers can be dressing or twisting. These can be small plastic bottles, jars of baby food and others that you find in your kitchen;
– Show your child how to attach a loose clothespin to a rope or thin belt;
– play table football. Roll candy wrappers in balls.
Divide the surface of the table into two parts and fold an improvised gate out of pencils. Divide the “balls” equally and offer the crumbs to compete – who will score more balls with the fingers in the opposite goal;
– teach the baby to hold the cup by the handle (light and safe plastic ones will fit), then a spoon, and then a pencil. Offer to draw doodles;
– to a year old baby shows interest in drawing. Use finger paints!
Do not worry about dirty clothes. Everything is easily washed off and washed with water and soap, but the crumb from such a game will be delighted;
– One and a half years old baby can be given more difficult tasks: lacing and buttoning buttons. Toys for this can be done independently or purchased in specialized stores.
For example, a very good guide for the development of fine motor skills is a string on which various objects are strung. With it, the crumb not only trains fine motor skills, but also studies the shape and colors of objects.
Finger games are a simple and fun, but very effective way to develop fine motor skills. This is a dramatization of rhymes, stories, fairy tales with the help of fingers.
In the course of such games, the child, repeating the movements of adults, activates the motility of his own hands. Thus, dexterity is developed, the ability to control movements and focus on one type of activity.
Many games require the participation of both hands, which makes it possible to introduce the crumb to the concepts of “right” and “left”, “up” and “down.”
Any poem, fairy tale or song that you know by heart, suitable for finger exercises! Your main tool is the movement of your fingers.
To interest the baby, use a variety of items, toys, changes in voice, music. For classes, choose the right time, for example, after a meal, when the baby is fed and is set to quiet games. Emotionally, clearly and slowly speak the words, while your face must be clearly visible.
Children “read the speech” well from the face of an adult and copy actions. If the crumb cannot independently perform the necessary movements, use the method of “soft physical manipulation” – take his hands in your own and make movements that are necessary together.
Approve any achievement of your kid!
Place your hands on the table with your palms down, bend your fingers slightly. Sentencing: “The leaves fall in the garden, I rake them with a rake” – run your fingers along the surface of the table, as if working with a rake.
Fingers squeeze into a fist, index finger and little finger – pull and spread aside. Move your fingers, pronouncing the poems: “The beetle is flying, the beetle is buzzing and moving its whiskers!”.
Hands are on the table, fingers are closed. Read the trash, accompanying words with actions
“Look, my palm is like a cheerful harmonica!
Fingers I spread, (fingers apart)
And then I’ll play.
One-two-three, one-two-three, (fingers banging on the table)
I play – look!
And then I shift again
And first I start (fingers move). “
Combine the thumbs of both hands with the rest so that they form rings. Bring them to your eyes, saying:
“Grandma wore glasses
And the granddaughter saw. “
Two corks from plastic bottles put on the table thread up. It will be “ski”.
Put on them the index and middle fingers of the right hand. Take a “step” forward on every word:
“We are skiing,
We are racing from the mountain
We love fun
“Finger games”, E. Sharikov, ed. “Dragonfly”
“And under the palm tree the crab is sitting. Finger games ”, E. Zheleznova, ed. “Karapuz”
“Fine motor skills. Gymnastics for fingers ”, T. Tkachenko, ed. “Eksmo”
“Finger games and gymnastics for kids”, E. Novak, ed. “Family Leisure Club”
“Finger games for children (29 cards), T. Kislinskaya, ed. “Peter”
“Original finger games. Earlier development of the baby ”, N. Rymchuk, ed. “Vladis”
“Poems with movements. Finger games for children 3-5 years old ”, L. Ivanova, ed. “Speech”
“1000 Fun Finger Games”, O. Novikovskaya, ed. “Astrel”
“The Land of Finger Games: Ideas for the Development of Fine Motility”, A. Dicenskova, ed. “Phoenix”
For the development of fine motor skills, any materials and objects are suitable: paper and fabric, lacing and buttons, cereals and pasta, natural material, plasticine and salty dough, all kinds of jars, beads. Most importantly, how interesting you are to present the idea and beat it.
We offer several ideas.
* with their help, you can lay out letters, numbers, shapes, and even build mazes;
* Take colored pasta and offer the crumbs to sort them into three saucers or jars;
* You can make beads and bracelets from thick short macaroni of different textures.
* well suited for finger painting. Spread the cereal evenly on a flat surface (you can use a tray that is easy to clean after the game) and slide your finger so that you get a line.
Ask your baby to repeat. First, the drawings can be ordinary points, lines and zigzags, then complicate the task – draw geometric figures, draw Christmas trees, flowers, little people, etc .;
* learn “application”: cover a sheet of cardboard with a thin layer of plasticine, put buckwheat, rice and peas in different plates and show your child how to lay out the patterns, pressing the grains and peas into the clay;
* equip the crumb with a deep spoon and give him the opportunity to pour beans or peas from one container to another. It will also be interesting for the child to pour the cereal through a sieve (you can use a kitchen or toy – for example, from a bucket);
* hide small toys in small deep bowls, and fill the cereals (buckwheat, peas, millet, lentils, beans) from above and invite the child to find toys in the cereals;
* Ask the baby to play fisherman: catch the beans with a sieve or spoon from a bowl of water.
3. Salted dough
It is very simple to prepare it: mix a glass of fine salt with a glass of flour, add a spoonful of vegetable oil and half a glass of water. Knead the dough and put in the refrigerator for several hours.
* It will be interesting for younger children to simply knead the dough, tear off pieces from it, make handprints, feet and various objects (pencils, keys, coins, etc.)
* Hepherdish will knead the dough in handles, pinch off small pieces of dough, shift them from the handle to the handle, knead and crush. Teach your baby to make pancakes and sausages, or hide a toy from the kinder surprise in the dough. Let him run both handles in the bowl and poke the dough with his fingers at his own pleasure.
This will help not only to strengthen the fingers, but also the development of tactile sensitivity.