Young mothers are usually very careful about whether their baby’s development is normal: how many hours he sleeps, how many grams of milk he drinks when he lifts his head. In the same way, it is important to know what stages the development of his speech goes through.
You should not think that it is necessary to check compliance with this standard closer to kindergarten – a deviation from accepted standards is noticeable literally from the first days of life. So what is the norm?
“In the first few months of life, the baby begins to roar,” says Elena Parzalis, “he utters separate sounds and random combinations of sounds like“ ag ”.
From about 6 months small begin to babble. Babble is the elemental folding of sounds into syllables. “Ma-ma, be-biya, di-aa,” the kids say with such zeal that many proud mothers believe that the child spoke!
However, even if a 6- or 7-month-old baby utters a cherished “mother”, it is not a word, since the baby does not yet relate it to the physical object, that is, to the mother herself.
By the year the kids try to pronounce lucid words. At this age, a child’s vocabulary consists of 10–20 of the simplest “statements” of the type “no”, “yes”, “give”, “stay”, “mother”, “drink”.
Even the kids are now happy to imitate: “av-av”, “meow-meow”, “be-ee”. In general, they squeak, bark and bleat!
And this is also the age limit.
The first half of the 2nd year of life is a time to accumulate vocabulary, so even if your one-year-old treasure is not the best companion yet, you need to talk a lot with it.
By the age of 1.5 years, the baby usually learns phrasal speech, that is, verbs appear in his vocabulary: “I want to drink”, “let’s go for a walk”, “I don’t want to sleep” …
By the age of 2, children are already coping with an expanded phrase that has epithets: “Uncle is good, I like him”, “I will not eat porridge, it is not tasty”. So, if a child develops normally, by two years he turns into a person with whom it is possible to talk.
It is believed that boys begin to talk after girls, which means that the “standards” of speech development do not apply. Experts and the truth note that the stronger sex faces difficulties in its development more often than the weak. What is the reason – is unknown.
But this is not a reason to sit back, on the contrary, the speech development of boys should be monitored more closely.
If the baby’s speech does not develop according to age, it has become not as smooth and consistent as before, or the child began to stumble, confusing sounds, you need, without delay, to contact a speech therapist and neurologist. The doctor and the teacher examine the child, prescribe treatment for him, or simply tell him what to do. If necessary, a psychologist will also join the conversation or work.
The joint efforts of specialists, the small patient and his parents can cope with the most difficult problems.
There are different conditions under which these phases of development are violated. “It is not always a matter of problems with the health of the little one,” says Elena Parzalis, “more often the reason for the delay in speech development lies in the peculiarities of the home“ climate ”, among which, for example, a silent by nature or a tortured mother who does not voice her actions and turns to the kid mostly “on business.” After all, in order to speak, the child must have heard enough. Here we, adults, in order to master an unfamiliar language, we need to at least regularly hear a foreign language, and the more often this happens, the better!
Now imagine the difficulties of the baby, with whom they do not speak, because he still does not understand anything! He simply has nowhere to take this knowledge. But if we compare the development of native language with the teaching of a foreign language, the question arises, whether tapes with fairy tales will be suitable as a “talking mother”.
It turns out – no. “Normally, a person has two hemispheres,” explains Professor Parzalis, “but only one of them will lead. In children, this role is played by the right hemisphere, which is responsible for figurative thinking.
Therefore, it is the mother who acts on all the senses of the baby, will be the best stimulator of the development of his speech. Mom is kind, pleasant to the touch, she smells delicious, she has a familiar voice … And no tape will do what she can do with her talk. ”
If the parent is removed from the baby, he begins to look for a replacement for her. The grandmother or the nanny can act as such, but then it is important that they take upon themselves the responsibility to speak with the baby, and not limited to feeding and changing diapers.
Another common problem is that mothers understand the child’s speech too well, and then he has no incentive to speak correctly. A kid with such a mom seems to like to communicate, but there is no desire to do it like a human being. And although at a certain stage of development all the kids say “in their own way,” you should not linger in this phase.
In two years, the child must speak human speech. If this does not happen, specialists will talk about delayed speech development.
To cope with this problem is easy: you need to make the right speech attractive and not to be led by a person who persistently asks for “Kaku” instead of a cup. Of course, you do not need to bring the child to tears, waiting indefinitely when he will cope with a difficult word.
Just help him: “What can I give you? A cup?
You probably mean a cup! This is a cup!
Of course, take the cup soon! ”And do not forget to praise the kid if he copes with the task.
And finally, a child can “fail to meet”, fail to fulfill the “standard” for the development of speech due to illness or some kind of stress in time. A kid who is in hospital or for some reason separated from his mother, for the time of unpleasant experiences, is likely to slow down in his development, but then quickly catch up with this lag – so deviations from the norm of 5-6 months are not considered deviations.
If a child is talked a lot, they sincerely care about him, he has not experienced serious upheavals, his intellect is age appropriate, and the delay in speech development is more than six months, you should think about more serious reasons. Usually in such cases, experts talk about tempo delayed speech development, or, as it is also called, developmental dysphasia.
These guys are willing to communicate using gestures, but … do not speak or speak much less than they should at their age. The reason for this delay is to be found among the features of the development of the baby before birth.
For some reason – the health problems of the mother – the brain structure of the baby, including the speech zone, may not be formed very well.
Of course, if a child does not speak at the age of three, it is clear that he needs the help of a specialist, or rather specialists. But how to detect a problem in infancy?
Often most of the delays in speech flow parallel to some other developmental problems of the baby, for which you can catch on. These include injuries suffered by children before birth or during childbirth, for example, an emergency cesarean section is fraught with a rapid change in habitat: small vessels of the brain, as a rule, do not withstand a drop from +8 atmospheres to +1 and can be damaged. Such a microchromosome may then affect the development of the baby’s speech.
Prolonged or transient labor will become for the little no less challenging: at the moment when it moves along the birth canal, its cranial bones go one after the other – this is normal, but if the birth occurs quickly, the baby’s head squeezes too much. So, children whose birth history was not easy should be shown to specialists, since there are signs that doctors can detect a problem in time, diagnose and warn parents about possible speech problems. In addition to the difficulties in the process of childbirth, the reason for going to a neurologist will be unusual for the child’s “achievements”, for example, if already in 1–1.5 months he starts to hold his head and his unusual behavior: long, hysterical crying, constant anxiety, inability to fall asleep, but only in the arms of the mother.
All these events need to find an explanation: if we do not understand them on time, we risk missing a moment when a child can be helped quite easily.
Refer to the neurologist. Most likely, the baby will be prescribed an ultrasound of the brain, and according to its results – treatment with drugs.
“I love you more than anything. You are a smart, obedient child.
But today you behaved badly, and I was offended at you, so I don’t want to communicate with you now. You go and think. Understand that was wrong.
And then you will come to me, and we will make peace. “
This is quite a difficult problem – only one article can be devoted to stuttering only. “Sometimes you have to work with such children for years,” says Elena Parzalis, “this disease is not treated with medicines. We can only work with the brain, which affects the fluency of speech, and there are a lot of reasons for its violation: stuttered relatives, family trouble, fear, injuries, problems in the development of the baby before birth. A stutter in a child may appear in those cases when some part of his brain is unusually active.
And for each child, you need to look for your cause and the leading mechanisms of the problem. ” Sometimes kids begin to stutter when they go to kindergarten – in this case it will be better for now to give it up.
There are kids who stutter just because they scream. And for some of the babies, this problem arises because the family speaks too quickly – the child imitates, cannot cope with the tempo and gets off. “It’s not by chance that we have six psychologists and twenty one speech therapists in the center for six doctors,” says Elena Parzalis.
When we talk about stopping stuttering, we are not referring to drug treatment, although in some cases we resort to using medications. In general, in the first 6–8 weeks of development of stuttering, you can try to “lower” it with medications. But above all, we teach parents to deal with the baby, because children with hesitations in speech can not be worried until their skills in correct speech are consolidated.
So, even if the child deserves, it can not be scolded, without thinking that the rash phrase can hurt. The problem also lies in the fact that parents usually understand negative emotions as “worries”. In fact, their experiences are harmful to their child.
Specialists of the center know a lot of stories when after a long adjustment of stumbling or stuttering, parents arrange a noisy birthday to their child, and in the morning all the correction work should be started over. In the department, Helena Parzalis is told that such a baby should be loved, caress, and talk with him slowly and kindly. So children can not say: “You’re bad.”
For them, such an epithet can become a tragedy, if they connect this assessment with the fact that they stutter, and then the work of specialists will go down the drain.
Do you know that stuttering children should not dramatically change the climate? For example, a week-long trip to Egypt for the winter holidays is a big stress, after which problems with speech become noticeably worse.
If the child began to stutter or stammer, consult a neurologist who will prescribe medications for your baby, most likely plant-based. Go to a speech therapist, he will tell you how to behave with a stuttering child, and more – to a psychologist.
This tricky word is called the incorrect pronunciation of certain sounds by a baby. All the heroes of the Dragoon story “The Enchanted Letter” suffered from physiological dyslalia. “Five years old girl, and she says -“ syski! ”- This is an alarming symptom. If a child says “lyba” instead of “fish” at three years old – this is normal, because he is just learning to pronounce the sounds correctly.
But the four-year talker such errors can not be lowered.
Refer to the speech therapist, that is, to the “teacher of speech.” There are no other correction options. Sometimes problems with pronunciation are due to the fact that the bridle connecting the sky and tongue is too short and does not allow the latter to turn around.
And if earlier it was simply clipped, today, for young patients, speech therapy massage is mainly done.
Difficulties in the pronunciation of sounds arise in those children whose language is not mobile enough due to problems in the structure of the brain or its work, then it will be a question of dysarthria. In this case, the baby will need not only the help of a speech therapist, but also a neurologist.