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Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

So what kind of pregnancy is ectopic? Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg is attached and begins to develop not in the uterus, but in other organs – the ovary, fallopian tube, abdominal cavity and. Bearing a baby in this case is impossible; an ectopic pregnancy cannot end in the birth of a child.

Why does the fertilized egg deviate from its intended path, get off the “course” and attach in the wrong place?

The main and main cause of ectopic pregnancy – the fallopian tubes, which can not perform their functions – to provide a fertilized egg to the uterus. In this most often blame inflammatory or infectious diseases of the genital organs, abortion, as well as childbirth, complicated by the inflammatory process.

The mucous membrane of the fallopian tubes swells, its folds stick together, the pipes become deformed and lose their ability to contract, and therefore push the fertilized egg into the uterine cavity.

Another cause of ectopic pregnancy is infantilism. About him say, if the fallopian tubes are elongated, winding, with a narrowed lumen. Usually such pipes are weakly reduced. Normally, well-developed, healthy tubes must, in order to move the fertilized egg into the uterus, to contract very actively.

And in strictly certain terms. After all, at a certain stage of development, the villi appear in the egg, with the help of which it attaches and begins to receive a stable supply of blood and nutrients.

And if the pipe is “late” with its contraction or was reduced weakly, this attachment will occur in the wrong place.

It is also necessary to take into account the risk factors for which an ectopic pregnancy can develop: adhesions in the pelvis, the occurrence of which provoke inflammatory diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, as well as diseases such as external genital endometriosis.

The treatment of these ailments must be taken very seriously, because an ectopic pregnancy is very dangerous for the health and even the life of a woman. The fertilized egg that has stopped and attached in the fallopian tube begins to develop there, which sooner or later will lead to an increase in the diameter of the tube. Since the fallopian tube is not designed for such a load, when the stretching becomes critical, its shell may rupture.

Blood, mucus and fertilized egg will enter the abdominal cavity, infection will begin. And this is a direct threat of peritonitis. In addition, vascular damage leads to massive internal bleeding.

That is why at the first symptoms of ill-being, one should immediately consult a obstetrician-gynecologist for advice.

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

About trouble always say certain signs. Ectopic pregnancy is suspected when woman-disturbing symptoms appear. Be sure to pay attention to any pain in the lower abdomen at the initial gestational age – these are the most frequent symptoms of ectopic pregnancy. Usually the pain is felt on one side of the abdomen, but sometimes it can hurt in the middle of the abdomen.

Pain often occurs when changing the position of the body, aggravated when walking and turning the body.

The period at which these signs of ectopic pregnancy appear depends on the exact location of the fertilized egg. If in the widest part of the tube, then the pain will come later – about the 8th week of carrying the baby, if in the narrow part of the tube – it is suspected that ectopic pregnancy can be earlier, already on the 5-6th week. If ectopic abdominal pregnancy, the symptoms will develop approximately after the fourth week of pregnancy.

But if the fertilized egg is attached in the cervix, the symptoms may be absent and the ectopic pregnancy itself may go unnoticed for a long time.

Signs of ectopic pregnancy in the earliest terms are also spotting. Monthly with ectopic pregnancy in the usual sense for us, as in the usual “interesting” position, impossible. Indeed, during any pregnancy hormonal changes.

So spotting, which many women consider to be menstrual bleeding, should be a wake-up call. They arise because of the separation of the functional layer of the endometrium of the uterus and come out in the form of dark consistency in the coffee grounds secretions. At the same time they are accompanied by a pulling pain in the lower abdomen.

In any case, the allocation in ectopic pregnancy differ from menstrual.

Other symptoms of ectopic pregnancy: fainting, dizziness, a sharp drop in blood pressure.

All these eloquent symptoms appear only after a delayed menstruation. No pronounced signs of ectopic pregnancy until the delay of menstruation is noted.

As with a normal pregnancy, a woman may experience breast engorgement, her mood can often change, but there will be no warning signs. Do not focus on the basal temperature. The basal temperature in ectopic pregnancy will be, as in normal, above 37 ° C.

Only a slight drop in the basal temperature to at least 36.9 ° C can speak of some danger. This phenomenon suggests that decreased production of the hormone of pregnancy – progesterone.

What can be not only with an ectopic pregnancy, but also with a frozen one, as well as with the threat of spontaneous abortion, that is, with the danger of miscarriage.

The conclusion suggests itself: it is impossible to independently determine whether a pregnancy is developing normally. All the above symptoms can occur with other disorders in the development of the future baby.

So, seeing the cherished two strips on the dough, it is necessary, without delay, to pay a visit to the doctor.

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

Alas, but, as we have already said, at home it is impossible to determine whether a pregnancy is developing according to the plan laid down by nature. The fact is that the home pregnancy test, if the fertilization of the egg has taken place and it has attached, will show two strips in both ectopic and normal pregnancy. Moreover, the initial symptoms will be the same as during a normally developing pregnancy.

However, sometimes with ectopic pregnancy test shows a weak second strip. This happens because with ectopic pregnancy, the level of hCG – human chorionic gonadotropin, or, as it is also called, the pregnancy hormone, usually grows slower and initially its level is lower than with a normally developing pregnancy.

The most interesting thing is that with ectopic pregnancy not only increases the basal temperature, but also the level of hCG. This hormone of pregnancy, which is called human chorionic gonadotropin, is produced by the cells of the chorion (the germ shell). Therefore, during any pregnancy, its level will be elevated.

And it is the high level of this hormone in the urine that changes the color of the strips on the home dough.

But you can still be suspicious. To do this, you need to donate blood from a vein to check the level of the hormone already mentioned.

Moreover, in contrast to urine, the level of hCG in the blood in the case of pregnancy increases already with a one-day delay of menstruation. And the level of hCG in ectopic pregnancy is slightly lower than what happens during a normally developing pregnancy. Take note and another property of hCG: its level during normal pregnancy doubles every two days.

The result of hCG in ectopic pregnancy is far from this, since hCG in an ectopic pregnancy does not show such a growth dynamics. So if you carefully monitor the performance of this hormone, then it is still possible to suspect violations and, on alert, using indirect “evidence” to draw preliminary conclusions.

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

And a weak second strip on the home test, and determining the level of hCG in the blood and tracking the dynamics of its growth are only indirect signs of ectopic pregnancy. Final and irreversible conclusions can be made only after ultrasound.

There are several types of genital ultrasound. You can explore them with a vaginal sensor and a sensor that is located on the front surface of the abdomen.

An intravaginal probe test provides more accurate results. He will “see” the abnormal attachment of the ovum already at 5-6 weeks.

However, if the period is very short, for greater certainty, the doctor may advise you to do another ultrasound on a period of 8-9 weeks. And then there can be no mistakes.

If, with positive pregnancy tests, the fetal egg in the uterus does not detect the vaginal sensor, the doctor will say with confidence that the pregnancy is ectopic.

So the question, at what time it is possible to determine an ectopic pregnancy, there is an exact answer: at 6-9 weeks of gestation. Just at this period, the woman first turns to the doctor about her pregnancy, makes the first ultrasound and gets an appropriate diagnosis.

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

Treat ectopic pregnancy in one – the only way – surgery. For this reason, at the slightest suspicion of such a diagnosis, the doctor offers the woman hospitalization.

Abandoning her means putting her life at serious risk. Consider one more circumstance: the earlier a diagnosis is made, the more gentle methods doctors can terminate an ectopic pregnancy.

Such a low-impact method as laparoscopy remains the most humane. Ectopic pregnancy is terminated, and the surrounding organs and tissues are practically not damaged, due to which the risk of adhesions and scarring is significantly reduced. It happens that with the help of laparoscopy it is possible, as in the case of a mini-abortion, to “suck” a fertilized egg.

It is important that laparoscopy during ectopic pregnancy allows you to save the tube, which after the operation continues to perform its functions. And this means that the probability of becoming pregnant in a woman is much higher than during normal abdominal surgery.

As for the operation itself, there are several options for its outcome. If the egg is attached in the tube, then the fallopian tube is cut through the incision in the abdominal wall and a “lost” embryo is extracted from it. Then the pipe is sewn up.

After rehabilitation, she will again be on full alert.

The most undesirable outcome is the removal of the tube during ectopic pregnancy. This is resorted to only as a last resort – if there is a rupture of the tube during ectopic pregnancy and the woman’s life is in danger.

When the operation is successful and the second tube remains intact, the chances that a woman can become pregnant in the usual way, still remain.

It should be borne in mind that surgery for ectopic pregnancy can trigger the onset of adhesions in the abdominal cavity and in the small pelvis. Therefore, a long rehabilitation course is necessary – anti-inflammatory treatment.

Ectopic pregnancy: why it happens

After a postponed ectopic pregnancy, a woman may try to get pregnant again. But for this you need to seriously prepare and be sure, as in the planning period of pregnancy, and from the very first days of her, be observed at the doctor.

According to statistics, the chance to get a normal pregnancy after an ectopic is 50%, the risk of a second ectopic pregnancy is 20%, and the diagnosis of “infertility” after surgery for ectopic pregnancy is made in 30% of cases.

In the first 2 months after surgery, sex is highly undesirable. And even after the spouses heal sex life again, they have another six months to protect themselves. Best of all – with the help of oral hormonal contraceptives.

Perhaps after the “rest” the ovaries will begin to work with a vengeance.

During the time that they will be protected, the spouses will have time to check for the presence of sexually transmitted infections, in particular, gonorrhea and chlamydia, and, if necessary, to cure them. A woman needs to have an ultrasound scan and check whether the fallopian tubes have changed after the operation, determine how passable they are, whether there are adhesions, cysts or fibroids. It is also desirable to conduct an endocrinological examination – for example, to check the function of the thyroid gland and check the ratio of hormones in the body.

If there are chronic diseases, you should consult with the relevant specialists and strictly follow their recommendations.

In any case, we must be prepared for the fact that a new pregnancy after an ectopic pregnancy may occur not with the first or even with the second attempt. And the further, the more the woman will begin to torment the question of how to get pregnant after an ectopic pregnancy. Any doctor will answer: for this, first of all, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, have a full rest, be sure to get enough sleep, be as nervous as possible, remember not only tasty, but healthy food and get rid of bad habits.

All these measures will be a good prerequisite for conceiving, bearing and giving birth to a healthy baby.

Nevertheless, the probability of repeating an undesirable scenario is rather high. Unfortunately, the risk is quite high, as scars and adhesions can form on the fallopian tubes.

In this case, the fertilized egg will not be able to overcome the distance separating it from the uterus. Because of the operation is often violated and the patency of the pipes.

For the reasons mentioned, trying to get pregnant again may never succeed. If, as a result of an operation for ectopic pregnancy, both tubes were removed, the chances of self-conceiving a child are zero.

In such cases, doctors recommend to resort to eco. An ectopic pregnancy is not possible. In vitro fertilization reduces the risk of recurrent ectopic pregnancy to absolute zero.

The essence of the method is that as a result of stimulation of the ovaries in the expectant mother several eggs mature. They are removed from the ovaries and in vitro, where they maintain optimal conditions for this, combined with the sperm of the future pope.

The resulting embryos are checked for anomalies. The healthiest samples are implanted into the uterus. As you can see, the fertilized egg in any case necessarily reach the uterus.

Another thing, the probability that an embryo is successfully implanted is approximately 30-35%. Nevertheless, for women who have survived uterine pregnancy, this method is sometimes the only opportunity to experience the happiness of motherhood.

So experts are right: pregnancy after an ectopic pregnancy is possible. It is only necessary to carefully consider their health and strictly follow the recommendations of doctors.

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