From birth, your baby is looking for opportunities to enter into a dialogue with you. At the first stage, contact with an adult is limited to mimic and pantomimic movements. He knocks with his feet, opens his mouth, builds grimaces, salivates.
But over time, the baby is already trying to take over your facial expressions, it gives response emotions when he sees your smiling face. He imitates you, responding to your words and actions, constantly trying to be in contact with you, to keep in touch with you.
He agukat and gulits in response to your greetings, he also tries to clap his hands when you play “Ladushki” with him and also waves a pen to his father for goodbye. Listening to you, remembering the intonation and facial expression, the kid gets an important experience in recognizing feelings and emotions, accumulates passive vocabulary, learns to understand your speech and responsively respond to it.
He reproduces all this in communication with different people, expanding his communication skills. Over time, the capabilities of the baby increase, but at the same time the activity in imitation increases.
By the age of 2–3, the child successfully imitates many of your actions, emotions, gestures, and behavior. Want to know how you look while talking on the phone?
Give your baby a pipe – and he will deftly imitate your movements, reproducing your intonation and facial expression with precision.
It will take another two or three years, and the child will establish the final, self-specific way of communicating with people, closer to his temperament. However, as a rule, this individuality will still be similar to the parent in rhythm, tempo and intonation.
Repeat after me!
The ability to copy is a great ability. It is important that or whom the child copies and how.
What role model does he choose – useful or not? What kind of imitation is this: “blind”, aimless or to learn, understand and make part of yourself, make your own, build your own unique style of behavior?
Imitation is also directed at external identification of oneself with some specific way, with mom, dad or other significant person. The first attempts to play role-playing games inevitably revolve around family life. You are cooking in the kitchen, vacuuming, washing, and, despite the fact that your daily activities seem to you a difficult routine, for the child they are extremely interesting.
He perceives all these efforts as an exciting and mysterious game. All the objects that adults manipulate are of great interest, and the child must repeat the actions with them in order to understand the purpose of these things and the meaning of your treatment with them.
Losing one or another of the actions of adults, the child makes reality clear to himself. This is a very important and necessary stage of development, moreover, it requires serious efforts: take a close look at what and how the mother does, remember the order of actions, “scroll” them in your imagination and, finally, reproduce, while trying not to deviate from the sample.
At an early age, all the kids are happy to learn how to handle household items, which for us adults are the most common. They just play “your toys”, which are more interesting than those that lie in the children’s room.
Try to make the most of this time. Fill the apartment with small copies of adult household items, such as toy phones, dishes, plastic tools, and soft brushes.
Do everything together with the baby: let him eat not separately, but along with you, wash and brush his teeth, dress and undress. Help him by commenting on his actions: “Now I will take a toothbrush and squeeze some paste onto it.
Now I will clean the upper teeth, then the lower ones, see how I do it. Can you repeat after me? ”So, using the baby’s ability to take note of your actions and repeat them, you will patiently, without coercion, instill a self-catering skills in your baby.
In the second year of life appear role-playing games. The little girl cradles the doll, combs it, rolls it in the stroller, feeds it and bathes it. The very first role-playing game – a game of “daughter-mother.”
Then the games become more complex, new plots and new roles appear – a doctor, a postman, a soldier, a princess. So the child learns to be an adult. Tries on different images, styles of behavior.
A child can recreate and independently reproduce a number of learned life situations, a whole chain of actions characteristic of one or another role: “A doctor should wear a white coat. He is calm and polite, always writes something, looks into his mouth and measures the temperature. He has a lot of medicine, cotton wool, bandages and syringes. ”
The similar image of the doctor is created in repeated playing. Moving from one role to another, the baby learns to navigate among the variety of human activities and among the objects that are associated with this activity.
So, the content of the child’s imitation gradually changes and becomes more complicated. Make it up for your baby or buy special sets for role-playing games: a hairdresser, a cook, a postman or a doctor. Beat with your child all the items that are used in a particular profession, explain and show what they are for, and do not forget to switch roles in order to check whether your child has understood these roles correctly.
Do not consider this time unimportant. In collaboration with you, the child will undoubtedly do more and learn more, which means that later he will be stronger and smarter than receiving this experience in independent work. With your help, your child will learn a specific activity more effectively.
And what the baby will do today under your leadership, tomorrow he will be able to perform well on his own. You do not just play with the child, you demonstrate unfamiliar objects, show how to manipulate them, reinforce your actions with comments, making these manipulations not mechanical, but conscious.
And only an adult can reinforce the correct action of the child approval and praise.
Kids learn a lot from others. But, unfortunately, they learn not only good, but also bad.
Here are just some of the examples.
Discharge by my mother’s method. Is the baby screaming desperately at the little bear, swinging theatrical little hands in front of him, stomping her foot, hitting the table with her fist or slamming the door? All this is needed to defuse negative emotions, to get rid of feelings of dissatisfaction.
The kid, who gradually becomes independent and omnipresent, because of his curiosity and at the same time awkwardness, is often forced to endure mom and dad’s displeasure, as well as constant bans: “don’t touch it”, “don’t go there”. All this keeps the child in suspense, which periodically requires an exit. To relieve stress, the kid imitates an angry mother, or imitates her educational methods, chastising the doll, putting it in a corner and forbidding her to do something without permission.
This is the same role, although not its best side. Look more closely at your strict baby: does she remind you of anyone?
It must be admitted that our children still adopt our habits, whether they are good or not, whether we want to pass them on to our child or vice versa. The influence of actions is stronger than words; our example, our actions, is a model to follow.
Lack of individuality. It is safer to play and communicate using some kind of ready-made behavior pattern borrowed from an older brother, mother, or yesterday’s playmate, because it is time tested.
Yes, and doing “like everything” is easier than taking leadership. Why “reinvent the wheel”?
As long as the baby is small, he does so, following everyone and doing “like everything”. And there is nothing wrong with that. The main thing here is not who starts the game in the team of kids, but how your baby feels.
Does he always follow the crowd and prefers to do like most? If so, then there is a danger that the baby will grow too pliable to someone else’s opinion.
So that the child is not inspired, constantly driven, you must help him develop self-esteem, giving him enough chances for independent decisions at home, giving him a choice, listening to his opinion and respecting his judgments. Give him more freedom of choice, limiting only in matters of health and safety of himself and those around him.
Do not forget that in the first place the child learns to be the leader in the family, and on how successful the baby is in this house, he will be successful among his peers. Confidential communication within the family is the key to the successful adaptation of the baby in society.
Copying negative characters. If your child is not copying the best characters, think: does he have any positive role models?
Who does he see on TV? What heroes of fairy tales chooses his idols?
It is still difficult for babies to distinguish between bad and good. We, undoubtedly, should help our children in this, explaining to them why this or that hero is positive or negative.
We have the opportunity to provide the child with good examples, watching what fairy tales our child listens to and what he watches on TV, with whom he communicates and what toys he plays. Help your child learn many good qualities on the example of bold and resourceful heroes, guiding him. Using significant figures for him, one can correct the child’s behavior, without saying: “How could you do this?”, But saying, for example: “Teddy Bear wouldn’t do that.
I think he would do this. ” And that will be enough.
As for copying unacceptable behavior in the game group, try to ignore the bad habits that the child brings from the garden or from the playground. Scolding and punishing the baby, you reinforce this behavior, only strengthening it. It is more effective to completely ignore the new manner, while it is better to focus on something good, approving and supporting the desired forms of behavior.
As a rule, bad habits in this case pass by themselves.