Porridge – a dish known since childhood. She was fed by our mothers and grandmothers. Now in its favor, we are trying to convince our children.
But constantly there is rice, semolina or oatmeal, even our own bothers. Fortunately, modern store shelves contain a much larger range of cereals than during our childhood. And about some cereals, we just had time to forget.
We restore this gap together.
Amaranth (shcheritsa) – annual plant, the seeds of which are used as cereals. It was banned in the 16th century, as it was used for magical purposes. In the 70s of the last century there was its revival due to the valuable nutritional properties with which it is endowed.
Amaranth is now used in agriculture, food and pharmaceutical industries.
Useful properties: Seeds contain a high amount of protein, lysine and other amino acids. In addition, they contain iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, which are important elements in the diet of pregnant women and diets, in the treatment of diseases of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems.
Seeds also contain squalene, which suspends the aging process.
Preparation method: Amaranth grains are tough enough, so they cook for about 20-25 minutes. On one glass of cereal requires 2.5 – 3 glasses of water. During the cooking process it is necessary to stir the porridge periodically, so that it absorbs water better.
It will be good as a salty side dish, and as a sweet porridge. Also, the grains of this plant can open up completely from an unexpected side and turn into fast food, namely popcorn.
However, the flour from shcheritsy turns out to be dense, so it is better to cook pastries from it with the addition of other types of flour, so that the products are obtained by air.
Arnovka (arnautka, gornovka) is a croup consisting of ground spring wheat of yellow-transparent color. It happens fine and coarse grinding. Exactly unknown, where did the name of the groats. However, it is assumed that it went from the Albanian people Arnaut.
There is also a special type of Turkish troops with this name. And in the Kursk province, the word was used as a marriage, which meant – fiend, basurman, brutal man.
Useful properties: Like all cereals, it contains all the many useful vitamins, minerals, amino acids and unsaturated fats. Thanks to them, it is possible to strengthen the immune system, improve the activity of the brain and the cardiovascular system.
In addition, like all cereals from whole grains of wheat, it helps to slow down the aging process and improve the condition of the skin, hair and nails.
Preparation: Coarse grits are cooked for about 30 minutes. Because of her rather “severe temper,” you should first wash the grits, and only then cook. The ratio of porridge and water should be 1: 4.
Grains of fine grinding must be boiled in a ratio of 1 cup of cereal and 2 water (milk). You can also make patties, casseroles, and other pastries from small cereals.
It is possible to cook both salty and sweet dishes from it.
Bulgur – cereals from processed boiled water, dried and steamed hard wheat. After steaming the wheat grains are dried in the sun, after which they are shelled and crushed. It is steaming with drying that gives a unique taste and aroma to the future dish of this cereal.
According to the approximate and unspecified data, it has been prepared for 4000 years. Now it is especially popular in countries with a rich culinary past: Armenia, India, Middle Eastern countries and in all countries of the Mediterranean. However, in Russia, it is also not completely forgotten.
And lately, it has even gained quite a lot of popularity among porridge lovers.
Useful properties: The whole-grain brown bulgur has the highest nutritional value, from which the upper shell is practically not removed from the microelements. Bulgur is saturated with vitamins, especially with B, K, E vitamins, beta-carotene, microelements (phosphorus, iron, selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium). Also croup contains unsaturated fatty acids, sugars, ash substances and fiber.
Regular consumption of Bulgur favorably affects the state of the nervous system, for which the B vitamins are the most important and, perhaps, the main “food”. A large amount of mineral salts helps to restore metabolism, makes the skin and hair more “alive”.
The complexion gets a healthy shade, the hair becomes more shiny and grows well.
Treats grain which is easily acquired by an organism and perfectly digested, without making heavier a state.
Preparation: It can serve as an elegant side dish, one of the ingredients for pilaf, salads and soups. There is also a finely ground bulgur. From here you can make a large variety of healthy cutlets and flatbreads.
Cooked for about 20 minutes. If you want to cook crumbly porridge, then you must first soak for a short time in order to reduce the cooking time, and for the gluten to open properly, otherwise the bulgur will turn into a mash.
According to legend, in one of the trips, Suvorov was told that there was nothing to feed the troops. There remained only a little different kinds of cereals.
Then, the great commander, without hesitation, ordered all porridges to be mixed together. Since then, porridge, consisting of several cereals, is called “Suvorov”. Thus, Suvorov was able to contribute to the development of Russian cuisine.
And it is not surprising that such a mixture of porridge came to taste. Not only is it unusual in taste, but in terms of chemical composition, it is more beneficial than monolithic.
Kamut is a distant ancestor of wheat, which in Egypt was called as Khorasan, which translates as “the soul of the earth.” Several of its grains were found in the late 40s of the last century during excavations in Egypt, after which it was again cultivated. By its size, ancient wheat grains exceed the modern version by two or three times.
It also has an expressive nutty flavor.
Useful properties: It is possible that due to its size, Kamut grains contain much more nutrients such as zinc, magnesium, proteins, amino acids, mineral salts, lipids and vitamin E, than modern wheat varieties.
Cooking methods: Porridge and side dishes with vegetables and mushrooms are made from kamut grains. If you leave them soaked in water for the night, cooking will take only 10 minutes. From flour of wild wheat bread is baked, as well as pasta.
Of the grains, it is also good to bake air flakes or crackers.
Quinoa (kinwa, quinoa) is an annual plant growing on the slopes of the Andes. It is considered a pseudo grain crop. However, for the Inca civilization, it served as one of three sources of food.
They worshiped him so much that they considered it a “golden grain.”
Useful properties: Quinoa is considered one of the richest, for our body, a source of proteins that are very similar in composition to animal proteins. This quality is especially valuable for people who have abandoned animal food.
The composition of amino acids, which are about 20 types, the grains are very similar to milk. In addition to protein, cereals contain carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals and vitamins of group B. Quinoa is also rich in calcium, iron and phosphorus, the amount of which is not inferior to fish.
Preparation: Quinoa very often replaces rice or buckwheat. It is also good not only as a side dish, but also as a main ingredient for warm salads and soups. By the way, quinoa is brewed in the same way as many other cereals.
It is advisable to wash the grits before cooking. Then it is only necessary to pour it into the pan and pour water with a ratio of 1 cup of grain to 2 cups of water.
Boil for 15-20 minutes. Then you can safely serve on the table.
Corn grits – consists of ground corn kernels. Porridge from this cereal is valuable because even with heat treatment, it retains all its useful properties. It is recommended for people prone to allergies, as it is ranked among low-allergenic products.
Useful properties: Corn grits are known for their detoxification properties: it helps to eliminate various harmful substances, radionuclides and toxins from the body. It also contains many vitamins of group B, E, A, PP, microelements – silicon, iron and many others.
And 80% of unsaturated fatty acids can be attributed to those products that regulate cholesterol levels. Nutritionists recommend eating corn porridge several times a week to get all the valuable substances that it possesses.
Preparation: Making corn porridge is very simple, like most cereals on water or milk: 1 cup cereal and 2 glasses of water (milk). If we talk about corn flour, then casseroles are made of it, as well as hominy or Italian polenta.
Flour also produces light and tasty yellow pancakes.
Couscous – belong to the category of wheat cereals. Initially, porridge was prepared from millet. Now it is customary to cook it from semolina, obtained from durum wheat.
It was first mentioned in a 13th century cookbook. It is believed that for the first time she began to be eaten by nomadic people – the Berbers.
For a time she enjoyed success only in the Middle East and the Mediterranean, then the whole world fell in love with her.
Useful properties: There is a high concentration of copper in the croup, which prevents premature graying and also strengthens the hair as a whole. In addition, copper is very important for increasing our hemoglobin level and is indispensable for problems with joints.
Vitamin B5, which is also present in porridge, saves from insomnia and overwork. Also, this cereal is desirable for use by people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Perfect for those who want to lose those extra pounds.
Method of preparation: The best option for cooking Ku-Kus is steamed, as the porridge will not boil soft and will retain the vitamins of group B. If there is no steamer, it does not matter. You can just brew porridge, fill it with hot water and leave it for a while under the lid.
Cooking is strictly contraindicated. But it is easy to use for the preparation of useful casseroles and baking.
Spelled is a special kind of wheat whose grains have a high nutritional value. Grain spelled larger than wheat. They are also well protected from pests, adverse external influences by a layer of rigid inedible film (chaff).
It is because of this layer that the grains are very resistant to radioactive radiation and all kinds of contaminants.
According to archaeological research data, they began to cultivate spelled as early as the fifth millennium BC. And the ancient Romans, who considered a spelled valuable cereal, used its grains and bread from its flour in their ritual ceremonies.
Useful properties: Spelled far exceeds wheat in the content of vegetable protein, unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron and B vitamins. And the mucopolysaccharides contained in it help our immunity to grow and develop.
The constant presence of this porridge in the diet will contribute to the strengthening of immunity, normalization of blood sugar levels, improvement of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, digestive and reproductive systems.
Cooking methods: In Italy, spelled is widely used for making risotto, and in the USA and Germany, various sauces and desserts are made from its flour. In Russia, spelled is most often used as a porridge.
If you cook porridge according to the old tradition, you must first soak 1 cup of spelled grains for 5-6 hours in a mixture of 0.5 cups of sour milk and 1 cup of cold water. Then rinse the rump and put it in a saucepan, into which you first pour 0.5 cups of water and 0.5 cups of milk.
Mix everything and put on low heat until all the liquid boils away.
But if you do not cook porridge from spelled, but a crumbly side dish, you need to rinse it several times and pour water (3-3.5 cups). It should be cooked over low heat for 30-40 minutes, as the grains are tough and require thorough cooking.
The most common dish of Russian cuisine – porridge. She always acted as a symbol of health and a subject of religious worship in Russia.
Previously, porridge was cooked both on weekdays and on holidays. She always had her place of honor not only on a simple peasant table, but also on a king’s table.
Earlier, porridge even had its own holiday – the Day of Akulina-buckwheat (June 26). A week before the holiday or a week after it was decided to sow buckwheat.
And at the very Akulinu cooked “worldly porridge”, the tables carried out on the street and regaled with that porridge wanderers and beggars.
Wheat or wheat cereal is produced from whole wheat grains. It happens from grains of whole and large crushing. The first option stores a large storehouse of nutrients. Our ancestors knew this, who told stories about her and said that it was impossible to spoil the porridge with butter.
However, in our time, it is not popular: some have forgotten about it, others simply do not know about its “abilities”.
Useful properties: It contains vitamins such as A, C, B6, B 12, E and PP. Thanks to this complex, you can improve your eyesight, make your hair shine, your skin smooth and your nails strong.
In addition, it contains vitamins of group B, which reduces muscle fatigue and helps to stimulate the immune system.
How to prepare: If we talk about whole-wheat wheat cereal, it is better to use it as a side dish or milk porridge for breakfast. Well washed cereal is boiled for 20 minutes, after which it is desirable to let it “rest” in the oven for another 30 minutes.
But from chopped grains it is best to make chops, casseroles and pies.
Teff (dwarf millet, teff abyssinian) – cereal culture “living” in Northeast Africa for over 5000 years. In Ethiopia, it is millet and in our time is the staple food. And this is no accident, since this plant is characterized by endurance and the value of its composition.
Useful properties: Teff contains a lot of high-grade vegetable protein, rich in various amino acids. Due to the high iron content and low phytic acid content, anemia in Ethiopia is almost not affected.
What can be said about the European population. In addition, dwarf millet contains a lot of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B1, phosphorus.
Despite the fact that many species of millet are similar in composition, no other cereal culture has such a high quality mineral and protein composition as teff. Also, this millet is great for people who are forced to stick to a gluten-free diet, as it does not contain it.
Cooking methods: In Africa, teffs make traditional flat breads. However, from its grain can be cooked porridge or side dish.
Flour is ideal for sweet pastries and pancakes.
Oatmeal (bearberry flour) – is crushed oatmeal or barley grains that have been pre-steamed, dried and cleaned. In appearance, it appears as wholemeal flour. Previously, this process took more than one day.
Modern technologies allow us to make the production process faster and more efficient, thereby preserving more useful properties of grain. The bearberry flour does not form gluten, it swells well in water and quickly thickens.
In the late XIX – early XX centuries. in Russia even whole oatmeal cereal plants, including oatmeal, were built. At that time, this cereal was highly valued for its properties and quality, for which it has received awards at agricultural exhibitions and also exported.
Useful properties: The structure of bear flour includes all the substances necessary for the full work of the body: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. It contains the substance lecithin, which is a feed for the human nervous system.
Its lack can be cause for fatigue, irritability, insomnia, depression and nervous exhaustion. Stimulates hemoglobin elevation and the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K.
Also noteworthy are the bioflavonoids contained in oatmeal, which are considered strong antioxidants for our body. They prevent the formation of various tumors in the body and eliminate toxins, as well as actively participate in cell regeneration.
Method of preparation: It does not have to spend a lot of time on the preparation of downy porridge. It is enough to fill in the oatmeal with hot water or milk, mix and leave for a couple of minutes.
It is also easy to make bread (tortillas) from the oatmeal. It is enough to knead a cool dough with kefir or yogurt, plus add spices, and send for a while to the oven.
This version of the cakes will serve as a useful and hearty snack between main meals.
Fricke (freekeh, freak, freaks, frick, fariq) are the last smoked wheat that is harvested when the ears are still green. There are two types of fricke: whole grains, similar to wheat grains, but green in color, and coarsely chopped grains. Frica was first mentioned at the beginning of the 13th century in the Baghdad cookbook.
Useful properties: It has a low glycemic index, which is an excellent condition for insulin production. As a result, it helps with diabetes and prevents its occurrence.
Low-carb product with good prebiotic effect, which is good for digestion.
Preparation: When cooking frica exudes a great aroma with smoke and gives almost a meaty taste. That is why it is actively used in vegetarian cuisine. Frick from whole grains turns out to be coarse, so it must be boiled for at least forty minutes, best in broth.
The crushed grain frica is softer and more tender, therefore its preparation will not require so much time. This cereal will serve as an ideal ingredient for meat and vegetable dishes.
Chumiza (capitate millet) is an annual cereal crop plant of the cereal family. Belongs to the most ancient bread plants of East Asia. In Russia, the Chumis spread after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), when Russian soldiers brought seeds from Manchuria.
When the soldier was asked about the reason for which they decided to take seeds with them, they replied that they were surprised by the reverent attitude of local peasants to this cereal. They decided that if the Japanese so cherish it, it means that there is something especially in it, and they were not mistaken.
Useful properties: Chumiz is rich in carotene and fiber, vitamins of group B (especially B1, B2), as well as calcium, potassium, sulfur, magnesium, silicon and phosphorus. Groats and chumiz flour are high in proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Vitamins of group B give our body beauty and health.
Thus, vitamin B1 is involved in metabolism, helps to improve memory, fights depression and fatigue; Vitamin B2 is involved in the growth of the body and tissue regeneration, gives a healthy look to hair and skin, and also plays an important role in the work of the organs of vision. It is known that chumiza is capable of excreting toxins and heavy metals from the body; therefore, it is recommended to use it for residents of large cities in which an unfavorable ecological situation.
Cooking methods: As porridge or bread, it is widely used in Georgian cuisine. The mass, which is obtained from boiled chumisy flour, Georgians call “Gomi”, and cook it in a metal pan on the stove.
The only thing this dish is prepared with a small addition of corn grits. Chumiza porridge is also very easy to prepare, just filling the grains with water.
Chumizna porridge, which has dietary properties, looks like millet, and its taste is similar to manna.
In Russia, it was decided to solve many issues and celebrate holidays with porridge. So, as a sign of reconciliation, the enemies had to cook and eat porridge at the common table. And Baptismal porridge “with fun” fed the father of a newborn child – salted, pepper, mustard and horseradish, so that he could appreciate all the wives’ births.
A yachka is a croup consisting of unpolished particles of ground barley kernel. Since ancient times, it has been actively used in traditional medicine. Decoctions from it have antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, tonic effect.
Useful properties: Especially successfully used yachka with diabetes. Barley grain contains vitamin A, almost all the B vitamins, vitamins D, E, PP. The composition of barley includes a wide range of trace elements.
First of all, phosphorus, which is necessary for the full metabolism in the body, as well as for the brain. There are in it such significant substances as silicon, chromium, fluorine, boron, zinc.
Modern nutritionists advise more often to use barley porridge and soups for people who are overweight, as well as for bowel disease, accompanied by constipation.
Cooking methods: In order to cook porridge from barley grits, it is necessary to pour one glass of grains with 3-4 glasses of water (milk) and cook on medium heat for about 25 minutes. Then leave it for a while under the lid so that it is present.
If you want to make crumbly grits, then 1 cup of porridge must be filled with only 2-2.5 glasses of water.
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