From time to time this trouble overtakes every child. What is considered constipation?
Constipation is a delay in stool for a time that is contrary to the physiologically established rate. A crumb, who has switched to an adult table, should defecate 1-2 times a day, and by 5 years – once a day. If there is a delay of more than 48 hours, you should consult a pediatric proctologist, pediatrician, or a nutritionist.
In most children, constipation is not associated with any serious illness. It is rather a signal that you need to change the diet of the child.
If the baby is gaining weight too quickly, it is necessary to guard – there is a threat of constipation. Mom should urgently review the diet and drinking crumbs. Another wake-up call is the irregular nature of “big deals.”
For example, for three days the baby defecates daily, and then comes a 24-hour break. Then everything is getting better, and after 2 days – another simple one. Pauses will be repeated more and more often.
And it comes to the fact that the child’s chair will appear no more than 1-2 times a week.
Important Learn the consistency of feces. If it was soft, then it became hard, and it also stands out with difficulty, it means that the number of bowel contractions decreases and the peristalsis freezes.
In babies from one year to four years old, constipation can be caused not only by unhealthy diets, but also by psychological causes. The most common – lack of parental attention to the timely formation of a child’s reflex to defecate. Most moms and dads make two common mistakes.
One extreme is to not pay attention at all to how many times a day the child has been in the toilet, the other is to pay excessive attention to this process and constantly remind. Some parents even demand that the baby go “big”, swear, if he does not want, they are forced to sit on the pot.
But the more adults shout, the stronger the baby resists, clamped. A reverse reflex may occur – the child will inadvertently restrain himself, causing constipation.
The second important circumstance is the position of the child’s body during a bowel movement. Optimal is considered to be a pose similar to the one that the baby takes while squatting.
That is, the knees, hips and torso should be tilted at an acute angle. Given the growth of the baby, this is possible if the pot is quite low.
The higher the pot, the greater the likelihood that the crumb will take the wrong position.
It is important The toilet, equipped with a child seat, does not fit. It is convenient to karapazu, sitting on it, to talk with legs, but such a position does not contribute to successful defecation
The threat of constipation appears when the child goes to kindergarten. The baby has to learn a new menu, and it is possible that this process will violate the frequency of bowel movements.
A psychological component is added to this circumstance: it is unusual for one kid to go to the toilet for all, to the other – he doesn’t like the official pot, the third – toilet paper, the fourth – does not want to be distracted from the game. Children suppress the urge, and the moment favorable for the defecation, when the desire and the ability of the organism coincide, is lost. Fecal masses are compacted, and the baby no longer has an acute need to run to the toilet.
In the evening, at home, the mother, out of habit, assuming that the child was already doing “big” things during the day, did not put him in the pot. It takes a day or two, the situation does not change. And receptors that create a feeling of fullness of the rectum, are disabled.
The child no longer seems that he wants to use the toilet, but his intestines are full. The health of the baby deteriorates, and his mother leads him to the doctor.
The cause of the ailment is found on palpation of the abdomen, it is tight. And there is a problem how to get rid of savings.
It is important to act carefully, because hard feces and excessive straining can damage the rectum and anus. There will be cracks and fistula, causing even greater discomfort and a categorical reluctance to sit on the pot, because it causes pain. Most often, only a doctor, a children’s proctologist using special magnifying equipment, sees the injury.
It happens that a bowel movement can be adjusted only after a child is given drugs that soften feces for a while and put candles that heal wounds. The final elimination of the problem is possible only after they completely disappear.
Without feeling any more pain, the crumb for some time forgets about all the unpleasant sensations, and the process of defecation is getting better.
In children, due to their high mobility, the loss of water is very noticeable, so it is necessary to more often offer the kid to drink. And if a child drinks water before or during a meal, then you should not take a cup from him. The water load of a child is about 3-4 times greater than that of an adult.
If the baby is dehydrated, then food debris is deprived of a sufficient amount of water, facilitating their passage through the intestines. On the next meal, its additional entry into the intestine leads to the accumulation of even more waste, clogging it up and making it difficult for the contents to pass.
In intervals between meals, the baby should always be able to drink water. Water should be in an accessible place.
The need for water in a child in 2 years is 115 ml / kg, in 3 years – 110 ml / kg. When constipation, the volume of fluid consumed should be brought to the daily needs of the child, taking into account his age and physical parameters of the environment. Children suffering from constipation, it is recommended in the morning on an empty stomach to give to drink half a glass of water at room temperature.
The liquid should be drunk in small sips.
Given the high need of the child’s body for water and a very high sensitivity to toxic and bacterial impurities in it, it is recommended to use bottled or filtered water using household filters. You can also use freshly boiled water cooled to room temperature, table mineral water without gas, weak tea, better herbal teas (chamomile, fennel, melissa, valerian, dogrose, linden, etc.), savory compotes, fruit drinks. Juices, especially freshly squeezed (carrot, apple, apricot, plum, cherry, beetroot) are undoubtedly useful.
For children of the first three years of life, it is recommended to dilute the fresh juice with water in the ratio from 1: 1 to 1: 3.
Important Children suffering from constipation should not drink cold drinks, as the stay of food in the stomach in this case is reduced from 4 hours to 20 minutes. This is, firstly, a direct path to obesity, because the feeling of hunger comes very quickly.
Secondly, it contributes to the accumulation of fecal masses and increased constipation.
In healthy children after a year, constipation is most often associated with malnutrition. In order for the baby not to suffer, soups, vegetables and fruits should be present in its diet, fermented milk products and bran.
Fruits and vegetables contain many mineral salts, trace elements, vitamins, fiber, sugars. In children with constipation, vegetables and fruits should make up more than 50% of the daily diet and be used in any form (fresh or after heat treatment).
The fiber contained in them stimulates peristalsis and increases the volume of fluid in the intestine, which contributes to its emptying.
In the day the child should consume:
- in 1–1.5 years – vegetables up to 200–250 g; fruits and berries – up to 100 g;
- 1.5–3 years – vegetables up to 350 g; fruits and berries – 130–200 g.
Vegetables should be offered to the child in the form of salads, mashed potatoes, filling them with vegetable oil. It is better not to use fatty varieties of mayonnaise and sour cream, they inhibit the bowels.
Mashed potatoes should be limited, starch also complicates the bowels. The daily allowance of potatoes for children of 2–3 years old is 150 g (about 2 medium potatoes), and up to 2 years old – no more than ½ the volume of vegetable dishes.
The set of vegetables includes cabbage and cauliflower, carrots, beets, onions. In summertime radishes, lettuce, pumpkin, zucchini, eggplants, sweet peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, turnips are added.
Some dried fruits, especially figs, dry plums and apricots, contribute to swelling and an increase in intestinal contents. In any form of constipation, you can include dried plums and apricots daily – 2–4 pieces. Either 2–4 teaspoons of dried fruit puree depending on age: 2 and 3 years, respectively.
Dried fruits are poured with a small amount of water for the night, then they are mashed and they offer the baby to eat in the morning and in the evening along with the infusion obtained. Prunes and dried apricots of young children are not recommended, as these fruits are often processed with sulfur dioxide during the drying process, which can lead to poisoning.
It is important Bananas, boiled carrots, potatoes, blueberries, bird cherry, dogwood, pears, quince dramatically reduce bowel contractions, which contributes to constipation. Also viscous food – kissels, mousses and jellies inhibits the activity of the intestines; it is not recommended to offer them for constipation to the baby.
Wheat bran is considered one of the most effective means in the fight against constipation. Bran are powerful stimulants of intestinal peristalsis, contain significant amounts of B vitamins, are a good absorbent (sponge-absorbing) of toxins and allergens.
However, the use of their young children should be strictly dosed: children from 1 year to 3 years – 5-10 g per day. Excessive dietary fiber in the child’s diet can cause impaired digestion and poor absorption of certain trace elements – calcium, iron, zinc, etc. Wheat bran before use must be put on a sheet of parchment paper on a baking sheet and calcined in the oven for 10 minutes, pour over boiling water so that they swell and become softer.
Then the fluid must be drained. Bran is used in pure form or added to compotes, soups and porridges. Bran is recommended for younger children (from 1 year old): in the first 2 weeks – 1/3 teaspoon 3 times a day, then the dose is increased to 1 teaspoon 3 times a day for 1-2 weeks.
When the desired effect is achieved, the amount of bran is reduced to 1/2 tsp 3 times a day. On average, one course of treatment should last 2 months.
Important Bran take on an empty stomach, you can with the first dish. In children with constipation, taking bran causes an increase in the mass of feces, their water content, a reduction in the time it takes to move the contents through the intestines and an increase in stool.
Soups Quite often, constipation occurs in children who either do not eat first courses or eat soups in meat broth. Children under 3 years old broths, especially bone, are contraindicated.
The abundance of extractive substances and fat can cause not only severe constipation, but also other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the appearance of allergic reactions. It is better to cook first courses in vegetable broth, and cook meat separately.
Before heat treatment, the meat must be washed, then put in cold water and let it boil. The first two times boiling water is drained and boiled until cooked in third water.
Important Children suffering from constipation, it is recommended to eat soups mainly from vegetables, chilled fruit and vegetable soups, as they stimulate motility and faster bowel movements. Useful borscht, beetroot soup, cabbage soup from fresh cabbage.
Dairy products – kefir, acidophilus milk, yogurt, ryazhenka and other products play an important role in the prevention and treatment of constipation and in children. Many dairy products include lactulose – a disaccharide (galactose + fructose), the main effect of which is selective stimulation of the growth and development of the intestinal protective microflora (bifidobacteria, lactobacteria) and a mild sedative effect.
When using fermented milk products, it is necessary to take into account that weak (one-day) kefir has a laxative effect, and strong (three-day) – on the contrary, fixing.
However, you should not get involved in fermented milk products, since their high acidity can lead to a shift in metabolism and cause disturbances in the activity of many organs and systems. This shift is more pronounced, the younger the child. Kefir is introduced from 8 months of life starting from 1 tsp.
The daily rate of kefir for a child from 1 to 2 years is 100 ml, from 2 to 3 years is 150–200 ml. Currently, in many cities there are special institutes and laboratories that prepare pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria in the form of dry and liquid starters. Usually they can be purchased at the pharmacy.
The starters are stored in the freezer; with such storage, their shelf life is a maximum of 1 year. Sourdoughs are used to prepare dairy products at home. Such products are of high quality, guaranteed freshness, lack of various additives.
In addition, they are truly alive.
Important Fermented milk products for young children should be prepared only with boiled milk.