Regular visits to the eye specialist is mandatory for all babies. From 1 year to 3 years, this doctor should examine the child every six months.
Regularly check the child with an ophthalmologist, because any pathology of vision is a source of fatigue, discomfort and an obstacle in learning. And, of course, follow the preventive measures, follow the regime, nutrition of the baby, do not allow overloads, and then your baby will clearly see the world in all its beauty and diversity.
According to statistics from the Department for the development of medical care for children and the obstetric aid service of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia, almost 35% of children aged 0 to 18 years suffer from eye diseases. By the end of school, these children become almost one and a half times larger.
And this is despite the fact that the level of modern medicine makes it possible to cope with even the most difficult problems and preserve eyesight in 80% of cases with timely detection and properly selected treatment! The main thing – do not miss the moment and take preventive measures.
The first two years of a child’s life are a period of intense development of visual functions. The visual acuity of the newborn is very weak; immediately after the birth of a baby, the baby can only distinguish between light and shade, the retina is still forming.
On the 10th day, the child is already watching with his eyes a large bright toy (larger than 15 cm), which moves in his field of vision at a distance of 20–75 cm. By 2–3 months, the eyes work becomes coordinated, and the baby can fix the object with two eyes .
The child begins to recognize the mother, and then other loved ones, welcoming them with a smile and active movements of the arms and legs.
The process of vision formation ends around 3-4 years, and during this period it is necessary to visit the pediatric ophthalmologist several times. It is better to make the first visit within 4 weeks after birth, when it is easy to detect and cure some birth defects: hypoplasia of the tears or cataract. Then the visit to the doctor should take place at 3 and 6 months, if no problems are found – at 1 year, and then every six months to 3 years.
In the period from 3 to 7 years old, the child should be shown to the ophthalmologist once a year.
The development of all body systems occurs synchronously, and when one of the functions develops with impairments, it inhibits others, affecting also the baby’s psyche. If the child lacks visual information, this deficiency must be compensated through other channels: auditory, tactile, olfactory. To detect visual impairment in the early stages can only specialists.
Parents, as a rule, notice the disease already in severe form, when mowing down one eye or the child does not respond to light. Therefore, regular examinations are very important. Especially for children with burdened heredity, since children whose parents have vision problems will most likely also suffer eye diseases.
With myopia in 90% of cases there is hereditary determination. With proper treatment, it is possible to significantly reduce the impact of heredity, reduce the depth of the lesion and prevent the pathology from developing.
The earlier an ophthalmologist reveals a child’s myopia and astigmatism, the easier it will be to slow down the progression of the disease.
Sometimes parents get scared when they suddenly notice that the eyes of the baby are directed in different directions. Up to 3 months is normal, but you should later show your baby to an ophthalmologist.
After all, strabismus is not only ugly, it has a negative effect on vision. If the child mows heavily, he sees the image doubled and, in order to avoid this inconvenience, begins to look only with one eye, completely neutralizing the second.
As a result, an unused eye loses visual acuity.
Squint is a complex problem associated with impaired visual perception and central mechanisms of control of the eyeballs. There are about 20 types of strabismus, and their causes are various. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the type of strabismus and develop an individual integrated treatment tactics, including therapeutic, surgical and rehabilitation measures.
Today, there are methods of surgical treatment of strabismus, allowing with maximum accuracy to restore the symmetrical position of the eyes and the visual function of the child.
Sometimes with strabismus (and some other visual impairments – farsightedness, corneal opacities, cataracts) a condition called amblyopia develops, in which one eye sees better than the other and the baby constantly uses only the healthy eye. As a result of such visual asymmetry, the second eye weakens and can completely lose the ability to see. Amblyopia should be treated as early as possible.
Better in the so-called sensitive, plastic period, when there is a construction of all body systems, including the visual system, up to 3-4 years. At this stage, all the treatments used are effective.
At an older age, much more time and effort will be needed to improve visual functions, and in some cases it is not always possible to achieve complete recovery.
After a comprehensive examination and examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist, a treatment program is developed, which is always carried out in conjunction with the elimination of the underlying disease that caused amblyopia. Children pick up glasses and are often prescribed occlusion (sticking) on the eye, which sees better – in order for the other eye to start working. However, this is not enough, and various types of stimulation are included in the treatment complex – light, photostimulation, frequency-contrast, etc. With a squint, at a certain stage, the surgical intervention is necessary to restore the balance between the eye movement muscles.
After treatment, a child with amblyopia should be regularly seen by a doctor, right up to adulthood, while the development of body systems continues.
Almost all newborns have a baby’s farsightedness of about 3 diopters. As the child grows up and the eyeball grows, hyperopia tends to disappear.
This is due to a change in the anterior-posterior segment of the eye, when the eye is extended and the hyperopia decreases. However, in some cases (approximately 6–10%) children are born with a farsightedness of more than 3 diopters, and this pathology does not decrease.
This often leads to a decrease in the function of the cells of the visual cortex of the brain. After all, they do not receive a clear image, and, therefore, there are no incentives for the proper development of neurons – the nerve cells with which we see. All this leads to a decrease in visual acuity and the development of amblyopia.
And in 40% of cases – to strabismus.
During treatment, glasses are required and special therapy is carried out, including a number of physiotherapeutic measures aimed at improving the functions of the cells of the visual cortex and stimulating the growth of the anterior-posterior segment of the eye to reduce farsightedness. The methods are completely painless and well tolerated by kids.
With the right therapy, in many cases it is possible to eliminate the pathology and save the child from constantly wearing glasses.
Constant viewing of the television has a negative effect on vision, so familiarity with it should be postponed to 2.5-3 years, and then strictly control the time spent in front of the screen. For preschoolers and younger students it should not exceed 1.5 hours per day.
There is also such a congenital state – astigmatism, when the child sees equally poorly both at close and at far distance. This pathology is due to curvature of the cornea – with astigmatism, it has an oval rather than round shape.
And in the eye at the same time there are two optical focus, none of which is in the right place. Therefore, in order to see, the child has to choose what to concentrate on: on horizontal or vertical directions, as a result of which visual perception is distorted. For example, a child may not see the difference between the numbers “8” and “0”, the letters “p” and “n”.
Such a change in visual images often leads to a secondary decrease in visual acuity and the development of amblyopia. Unfortunately, earlier, in previous years, amblyopia with astigmatism has not been sufficiently studied, therefore, almost did not respond to treatment. However, today, on the basis of complex physiological studies, we managed to figure out how to eliminate the pathology, how to “force” cells to work correctly and thereby increase visual acuity in astigmatism.
And today, in 70% of cases, it is possible to save a child from wearing glasses and give good vision.
Human organs of vision are not designed for long-term work at close range. Therefore, school workloads with the wrong organization of the educational process become destructive – they provoke the development of myopia. The main cause of this disease is prolonged eye strain, when the child has long focused on close objects: a book, notebooks, a drawing album.
As a result, the eyeball lengthens, and the image on the retina becomes defocused, visual acuity decreases.
You can avoid the development of myopia, but for this you should follow a number of preventive measures. First of all, experts do not recommend giving a child to school before 7 years old when the body is not yet ready for serious stress and the visual system has not completely formed (this happens only by 7–8 years old).
According to statistics, among children who became first-graders at 6 years old, 3 times more myopic than among schoolchildren who went to school at 7 years old.