Just a minute ago, the kid was squealing with delight, flying from a slide at full speed, but as soon as you distracted for a second, the chorus of joyful falsettoes instantly blocked the loud and haughty native crying. Such force majeure is an integral part of the everyday routine of each yard, and in the midst of the street-yard season, queues of young victims are lined up near the surgeon’s office. It is necessary to ask the parents what the main properties of a playground should be, how light will be shed on this riddle.
Unfortunately, such a criterion as safety does not occur to adults, but they discuss color solutions and elegance of architectural forms with inspiration. But even if the parents do not take their eyes and hands away from their offspring, the structures themselves and the ground cover may be dangerous.
In the developed West, dangerous playgrounds do not exist in principle. In Russia, alas, they are found in almost every yard.
In Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia, repeated tests and inspections are carried out frequently and to the fullest extent. If the playground does not comply with the protocol, it is immediately closed and brought up to standard.
In our country, everything is different. GOSTs, prescribing what materials gaming equipment can be made of and how it should be installed, were developed only in 2006, but in practice they are used, to put it mildly, not everywhere. Nevertheless, these standards are considered mandatory for both manufacturers and landlifters, and if necessary, they can be quoted.
Most of the children’s playgrounds in the city are under the command of the ISU State Institution – the state institutions of the “Engineering Service”, they are at every administration. Officials can be asked for detailed information about the manufacturer and installer of gaming equipment.
Reliable companies acquire voluntary certificates, and this is one of the main indicators of their reliability.
According to State Standards, all designs on the playground, as well as ground cover should be tested. The results of the tests, as well as the protocols of regular inspections are stored in the directorates of the operating organizations (GU ISah, HOA, etc.). There should also contact to complain about the loose swing, dirty sandbox or the lack of benches.
Today, the issue of safety at children’s playgrounds is given a lively attention by the city authorities, and this opportunity is better used. As a rule, complaints, especially collective ones, give a quick result.
It is clear that only official papers cannot be insured against an accident, because only the parents themselves can ensure the safety of the child on the playground. Before releasing the child to the playing ground, it is important to inspect every corner of it.
Moreover, it is advisable to arrange such a check every time, because over one night her condition can be greatly deteriorated by the efforts of the vandals.
Pay attention to several parameters. The farther the site from the roadway, the better. The danger is not only the wheels of cars and exhaust gases that players breathe.
Along the roads grow trees, under which accumulates fallen leaves. In rainy, wet weather, heavy metals are deposited on this natural litter and phenol, toxic substances harmful to the body. There is only one rule in the State Standards: the distance from the playground (for children from 6 years old) to the road should be at least 15 meters.
A fence or perimeter grid is a voluntary thing: it is believed that parents should keep the smallest ones, and for children over 6 years old this is not an obstacle. Nevertheless, parents always have a choice: if in the neighboring yard the ground is fenced and removed from the roadway, it is better to drive the baby there.
Proper organization of space is important, no less. If the ground is small, but densely covered with slides, swings, merry-go-rounds and houses, the risk of injury rises sharply: children will beat their foreheads and land in the sandbox, descending from the slide. The distance between the objects of gaming equipment, as well as the gap between them and the benches, urns and fencing should be 2-2.5 meters: these figures are prescribed by law.
Toddlers are not able to assess their own speed and distance to a moving object, whether it be a running toe or a swinging swing. The catchy colors help to notice the obstacle in time, therefore the game structures should be covered with bright paint. Against a contrasting background, lateral vision works better in children: this makes it easier for them to see a moving object.
And, finally, the playground for kids up to 6 years old must be equipped with benches for parents – only this way it is possible to provide close supervision of the child.
In the courtyard, kids release steam, so it is useless to control bursts of motor activity. And although falls can not be avoided, but they can be mitigated.
Special ground cover is shock absorbed.
In Western countries, this issue is taken seriously: for each design, the so-called head damage criterion (HIC) is calculated – with its help, you can find out the maximum allowable height of an attraction, when falling from which a child’s skull will remain intact (similar studies are conducted during car crashes). – tests). These measures are very important – they allow you to avoid deaths and serious head injuries.
In Russia, the device for such measurements so far exists in a single copy, and such measurements are not made. GOST helps children in this respect.
Playgrounds are allowed to use fine sand, gravel, bark, sawdust and rubber. The ground and the lawn are quickly tamped down and become hard as a rock, and this is dangerous.
But the granite crumb, which is sprinkled with sidewalks in the winter, is strictly forbidden: when falling, its sharp edges will scratch the skin into the blood. It is necessary to check the coating near structures whose height exceeds 60 cm.
The layer of sand in the area of potential landing (around the hill, under the swings and hands, etc.) should be at least half a meter. To notice the violation, it is enough to clear the top layer with a shoe.
The rides themselves are better inspected in advance, because most faults can be seen with the naked eye. All bolts must be ground or sawed after assembly.
The edges of the parts for which the baby can grasp his hands should be rounded. It is easy to check the stability of the structure: it is enough to touch it, pull it, or shake it.
The ideal slide for children under 6 years of age has a plastic descent, the maximum height of which is at the vertical from the extreme top point should not exceed 1 meter. Manufacturers began to gradually give up metal: in the summer it becomes very hot, and in extreme heat you can get a thermal burn. The tree is also not suitable: over time, cracks form in it, which are often hit by nimble fingers.
It is not necessary to speak about splinters in all soft places. The sides should be made of plastic, because during the descent the children hold their hands.
In autumn and winter, after rain or snowfall, steps should be inspected, because it is very easy for the baby to slip.
Swing under the new rules must hang on the chains: this design allows you to adjust the amplitude of rotation. Links should not miss a child’s finger.
Kids’ favorite fun is to swing the swing and run away without thinking about the consequences, so the seat should be plastic: the lighter the material, the weaker the blow.
Rukokhod should be located at a height of not more than 1 meter above the ground, so that tots under 6 years old could reach the crossbars themselves.
Of course, it is difficult to get a serious injury in the house, but at night, informal people and smaller brothers like to gather in such cozy corners. Before sending the kid inside, it is worth looking there and scout the situation.
The risk of injury on the merry-go-round is no less than on a swing, so the kid can ride an attraction only when accompanied by an adult.
If you are going to equip a playground in your home garden, it is better to invite companies that have passed voluntary certification to install equipment. A license to conduct this type of work is not required by law, but only official paper will allow bringing an entrepreneur to liability.
Structures can be installed by concreting or using special metal pins. In terms of security, they are equally reliable, just the second method is more expensive.