For their first birthday, most kids have time to take the first step and are now improving in this skill. But even if the crumb is a bit late, it’s not worth worrying: walking is a difficult skill, and medical standards are spent on children for quite a long period, from 10 to 17 months. In order for a child to walk on his own, different groups of muscles (not only his legs, but also his back, neck, and arms) should get stronger, and the nervous system must be mature enough to coordinate their work.
In mastering the skills of movement, the gender of the child also matters (girls develop faster than boys), and its weight (full children can walk more slowly), and temperament, interests (restless bastard goes before being quiet, who prefers to tinker with toys on the mat).
TIP. The first thing that is required of a baby who has just begun to walk is to learn to keep balance. In this he will be helped by a big toy wheelchair (for example, a machine) with a handle, which he can hold onto, pushing the toy in front of him. Such “exercises with support” help children to keep balance and walk more confidently.
But walkers, very comfortable for parents, are not too useful for the baby; if you give them to a child, then no more than 15 minutes. In them, the child is “surrounded on all sides” and does not try to keep balance on his own, poorly trains the muscles of the hips and buttocks, but on the spine, lower legs and feet receives an unnecessary burden.
The pace of development, psycho-physiological characteristics, the behavior of boys and girls is very different. Boys longer adapt to new conditions and prefer to be surrounded by the same people and things.
But the feeling of fear of the fair sex experience more; moreover, they have sharper hearing and less tolerance for noise.
Boys have high physical activity. Almost from birth, they like extreme entertainment: for example, when they are thrown into the air or wheeled in a wheelchair.
Restrictions in such activities and noisy games usually act on them overwhelmingly, but do not balance at all.
The development of girls goes more systematically. In boys, periods of rapid growth and weight gain alternate with periods when no changes are visible at all.
So, the boy may not speak for a long time, while his contemporaries are already in full talk with whole phrases, and then he will speak suddenly and immediately.
A kid who is just learning to walk, now and then relies on some objects (make sure that he is surrounded only by stable furniture), he goes down on all fours to take a break or crawl through difficult areas. Along the way, the crumb studies and feels what gets in his way, and by the age of 15 months he can bend down and pick up interesting things without falling down.
Having learned to confidently keep balance when walking in a straight line, the child needs to master the following stage: to change the direction of movement without “skids on bends” and collisions with objects.
TIP. In order for a crumb to learn to take turns, try to walk with him on a large circle drawn on the asphalt (about 2 m in diameter); at home, arrange labyrinths of toys, pillows, chairs, and bypass walk pits, shops, large stones.
The main toys of a one-year-old baby are the objects that surround him: the crumb is ready to spend hours studying the covers of saucepans and tubes of creams. If before the child was interested only in the shape, color and taste of things, now he is able to understand their purpose.
TIP. If the object does not pose a danger to the child or special value for seniors, do not take away the child’s fun under the pretext that it is not a toy. Bans will sooner or later destroy the natural desire of the child to study the unknown. It is better to show how to use this thing, giving a simple explanation.
For example, when a crumb picks a fallen leaf from the ground, say: “This is a leaf that fell from a tree, see how big and yellow it is. Let’s put it back on the ground, because it’s dirty and you can get dirty. ”
The little one learned to walk not only forward, but also backwards: if something scares him, he will retreat, but not lose balance. Obstacles arising in the way he no longer crawls, but just steps over, lifting and bending his knee.
TIP. To develop this skill, try to lay out large sheets of paper on the floor and have the child walk on them, stepping on one or the other. The next stage – step over the sticks or pebbles, gradually increasing the height of the obstacle to 15-20 cm.
The accuracy of the hand movements is improved, and now the kid can hold a pencil in his hand, point his finger at the objects of interest, unscrew the caps on the bottles and even pick his nose.
TIP. From drawing with finger paints, you can safely move on to working with a brush and felt-tip pens. Try, at least for a short time, to put the “tool” in the baby’s hand correctly – most likely, the baby will soon take it again into a fist, but you need to repeat the correct version over and over again.
By this age, a young artist can depict short strokes, points, and squiggles – trying to turn these abstractions into something meaningful is useless for now. Draw yourself, depicting plants, animals, people on a white sheet and let the kid follow this magic.
Before you learn to dress, the child learns to undress. By the age of one and a half, the baby can already pull off socks, shoes, a hat, and the last two items can somehow and wear.
By the way, the ability to independently lower the pants – an important step in potty training.
TIP. To encourage your baby’s independence, pick him up with comfortable clothes that he can easily handle, such as velcro shoes and elastic pants.
You should not try to adjust your child to the developmental standards of other children: even siblings are very different in terms of acquiring skills. The development of a child is influenced by many factors: heredity, order of appearance in the family (the younger ones learn faster than the older ones), the active participation of parents in the upbringing, the environment. Principles of psychomotor development are the same for all children, but the age at which certain skills are acquired may vary.
Someone better develop physical skills (walking, climbing, the ability to climb stairs), someone has a speech. A simultaneous jump in two or more areas of development occurs in a very small percentage of children: as a rule, at one stage, one thing dominates.
That is why the child’s desire to learn new things should be encouraged, but not to force things: trying to speed up the process will only harm.
The ability to raise the leg, stepping over an obstacle, allows the child to “conquer the mountains” – to climb stairs. So far, he is able to walk only 5–7 steps under the vigilant control of adults, and it is easier for him to climb up than to go down.
Putting one foot on the step, the baby lifts the second one and places it next to it.
TIP. Teach your child to always hold on to the handrail or hand of an adult – this will help prevent unauthorized “flying”. Stairs in country houses are especially steep – stick a non-slip tape on the edge of each step or install a fence with a secure constipation.
Swift kid is happy to spend time playing active games such as catch-up, hide, football. Ball games – an extremely useful toy for the physical development of a child – help to develop several important functions at once: coordination of eye, arm and leg movements, an eye meter, accuracy of movements, and visual concentration.
After 1.5 years, the child is able to throw the ball in the direction of a large target and get into it from a distance of about 50 cm, kick it with a foot, throw it up (catch the toddler until it succeeds).
TIP. If it is still difficult for the kid to hit the ball with his foot, hold him up by the raised hands during the stroke.
The kid is becoming more independent: now he can wash his hands under the tap and wipe (or rather, get wet) with a towel, stir the sugar in the cup. At the table, he will be happy to treat his mother with food from his plate and “feed” him with a spoon.
The whole second year of life the baby actively copies adults. If you show him how to handle the toy, he will be able to repeat your movements (or at least try to do it). But this does not mean that he understood your explanations – for now, it is enough for him to simply reproduce what he saw.
Therefore, if the toy is rather complicated, you will have to repeat everything several times before it gets used to it. After 1 year the baby already understands that every action is effective, and the predictability of this result gives him pleasure – hence the passion for repeating actions.
As the second birthday approaches, the kid is gaining more and more achievements: he runs well, takes several steps on his toes, stands on one leg (but with support). He can already consider a bug in the grass, squatting and not falling back.
If you support the baby by the arms, he will be able to jump on both legs.
TIP. Running and jumping will help develop not only motor skills, but also a sense of rhythm and musical ear of the baby, if accompanied by rhymes or children’s songs. Gymnastics can be turned into a fun game, suggesting that the child portray how the train travels, the bunny jumps, the bear rolls over, and so on.
The little “master” already knows well why this or that object is needed. At the request of his parents, he can show (and often call) the things around him and demonstrate how they are used: he speaks on the phone like a dad, interferes with food in a saucepan, like a mother reads a newspaper like a grandfather.
By 2 years old, the baby is able to show several animals in the picture in the book, to distinguish the basic antonymous concepts like “big – small”, “cold – hot”, to differentiate objects by color (without necessarily naming them).
TIP. Develop the ability of the baby to distinguish shapes, colors, sizes will help toys such as frame liners, sorter, dolls, cups of different sizes. Keep in mind that children of this age are able to master the simplest geometric shapes: a circle, a triangle, a square – and toys for them should not be too complicated.
The same applies to colors: in the “active” palette of the baby, there are no complex shades like pink yet, but there is a simple red, green, blue, yellow.
There comes a new stage in the development of good manners of the baby – now you can give your baby a fork. The little one will already be able to impale food if the pieces are large enough.
TIP. For the first acquaintance, offer your child a plastic baby fork (preferably curved) and soft food, such as a slice of a chop or boiled potato. Demonstrate that the spoon is smooth and the fork is sharp, and in no case can you swing it.
The main mistake that parents sometimes make is too hasty transfer of a one-year-old baby to a “common” table. At this age, due to the nature of the digestion, not all foods are suitable for the child, many crumbs are still cooked separately.
Otherwise, you may experience iron, iodine, vitamin, iodine or fatty acid deficiencies. Read more
The child will take his own “living wage” independently. But to direct his activity in the right direction, to help develop or improve these or other motor skills faster, to prevent or correct physical disorders, to strengthen the necessary muscle groups, to increase endurance, strength and flexibility – it is possible only during special games and exercises, for example, organized at home by the parents themselves. Read more
Often, speech delay is noticed only three years later, or even later. Prior to this, many are loyal to the situation. “Well, the child does not say – it does not matter. It will be three years – he will speak immediately as an adult. ”
This really happens if the problem “does not speak” is that the child is simply not active enough in communication. However, it happens that the violation occurred at the earlier stages of speech development, and then a miracle does not happen – the “silence” will not speak.
Therefore, it is necessary to listen to the baby much earlier. Read more