Mononucleosis causes Epstein-Barr virus, which infects the lymphatic system and internal organs – the liver and spleen. It is believed that almost every person had this disease in due time.
In 80% of cases, he is not accompanied by visible symptoms.
Kids up to a year suffer from mononucleosis rarely. It’s all about the passive immunity that they get from mom. Infection most often overtakes children, adolescents (14–16 years old) and young people (18–20 years old).
At the same time, boys pick up the infection twice as often as girls. By the age of 30, antibodies to this virus are usually found in the blood, and after 40 years the disease is rarely diagnosed.
Why is mononucleosis a kissing disease? Because he usually moves to a new host with the saliva of an unhealthy person through close contact.
What increases the risk of infection? General dishes, toothbrushes, and, of course, toys.
Therefore, another vulnerable group for this disease is children under 10 years of age. The reason is simple: at this age, children are constantly in the team (in kindergarten or school, and just on the playground), and the chances of catching an infection transmitted by airborne droplets from them are especially great.
In addition, young children do not always follow the rules of hygiene and love to try everything on the tooth.
Diagnosis of the disease is not easy. Some symptoms are characteristic not only of mononucleosis, and therefore mislead doctors and parents.
For example, the first symptoms of mononucleosis are often confused with angina.
In this case, the course of the disease is different for everyone. Some patients may not even notice mononucleosis, writing off fatigue and malaise to high loads, seasonal blues.
Moreover, the surge in incidence usually occurs in the winter-spring period. And in others, the disease develops in full: with a temperature of under 40 ° C, severe abdominal pain, a painful spleen, etc.
- headache, dizziness,
- muscle and joint pain,
- body temperature has increased significantly. In mononucleosis, the thermometer sometimes reaches 39-40 ° C.
- lymph nodes and tonsils increased. Notice how the baby turns its head. If he is having difficulty, it is necessary to carefully examine the cervical lymph nodes. They do not become painful, but with mononucleosis, they are felt very clearly.
- a whitish bloom on the tonsils and tongue. In this case, usually the throat does not hurt and it is easy for a child to swallow.
- breathing became difficult. Symptom is often accompanied by nasal congestion.
- fatigue increased, the child constantly feels weak.
- there was severe pain in the left side of the abdomen. They indicate that increased spleen and liver. The symptom is not mandatory, but if it is, it is urgent to call emergency medical care. Sometimes the symptoms of an acute abdomen suggest that the lymph nodes located in the abdominal cavity are enlarged.
- there was a rash on the body. But this feature is also optional.
For these symptoms, the doctor must prescribe an abdominal ultrasound scan and a blood test. The diagnosis of mononucleosis is made if the virus’s DNA, as well as atypical mononuclear cells (mononuclear cells) and the corresponding antibodies are detected in the blood against the background of an increased number of lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes.
In addition, the doctor prescribes a smear from the tonsils. It is necessary in order to find out whether the symptoms indicate another disease – diphtheria. The symptoms of this disease and mononucleosis are similar.