The first step to restoring former slenderness is to maintain a balance between fats, proteins and carbohydrates in the daily diet.
Protein is the most important of these three components. In the body, it performs the building function, and in the first place cells are formed from it.
Protein molecules consist of a kind of “building blocks” – amino acids. In total, there are 22 species in nature. Of these, 8 amino acids are considered essential, because the body is not able to synthesize them independently.
We can get this important set only from food. The nutritional value of proteins depends on their amino acid composition, depending on which they are divided into full and incomplete.
The first contains all the essential amino acids (arginine, valine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan and phenylalanine), the second – one or more of them. High-grade proteins are present in food of animal origin: eggs, dairy products, meat, poultry, fish.
Plant protein from various types of legumes, soybeans, peas, cereals and vegetables is considered defective.
The newly-born mother should devote at least 11–15% of the daily ration to the proteins (the dose should be measured on the basis of the total calories consumed), because a lot of building material is required to restore the body after delivery. For lactating women, the daily portion of proteins is important to increase to 15-20%, so that breast milk is produced in the right quantities.
During this period, it is necessary to lean on egg whites, lean meat (beef, chicken, turkey), fish (pollock, cod, haddock, flounder, pike perch, hake, pink salmon, salmon), milk and dairy products of low fat content.
Carbohydrates are the “fuel” that our cells convert into energy. They should be 55−60% of the daily diet.
All carbohydrates are divided into slow (complex) and fast (simple), depending on how fast they break down in the body and are converted into the main source of energy – glucose. To measure the speed there is a special indicator – the glycemic index (GI). Foods that contain slow carbohydrates and have a low GI include: unrefined rice, whole-grain bread, whole-grain flour pasta, cereal (except semolina), most vegetables, and savory fruits.
The group with high GI includes: sugar, honey, many dried fruits, sweet fruits (for example, pineapple, cantaloupe, watermelon, ripe bananas, persimmon), some vegetables (potatoes, parsnip, pumpkin, turnips), brown and white rice (except basmati ), white flour bread, muffins, pastry sweets.
The body needs both fast and slow carbohydrates, but you should not be the first to abuse it, especially if your goal is to lose weight. The best option is to consider all kinds of desserts, pastries, chocolates and sweets as “festive” food.
Pampering yourself in such a reasonable mode, you will not only control your weight, but also take care of the body. Every time we eat muffins and sweets, the pancreas, which produces insulin, is literally exhausted from excessive loads.
At the same time, blood sugar “jumps” up and down, and with it our mood.
Fats contribute to the formation of hormones and the absorption of many vitamins. The main groups of fats include animal fats, vegetable fats and fats of marine fish.
In animal fats, which are rich in dairy products, meats, cheeses, sausages, eggs, etc., contain mainly saturated fatty acids. They, in turn, are involved in the construction of new cells, give the body energy and protection.
However, the abuse of animal fats can cause problems: diseases of the cardiovascular system, excess weight, increased cholesterol.
Vegetable fats (present in vegetable oils) and fishes of marine fish contain unsaturated fatty acids, which provide energy to the brain, keep the heart and blood vessels healthy. These components are vital for every person, especially a newly-minted mom, especially a nursing mother.
Vegetable fats contain more unsaturated fatty acids than animals, and therefore are absorbed much easier. In addition, animal fats are rich in vitamin A, while vegetable fats contain predominantly vitamin E.
Ideally, the “healthy” fat should be around 20–25% in the daily ration in the postpartum period. And if a non-feeding mother can reduce this percentage in order to lose weight, a nursing woman must adhere to these norms in order for her baby to get all the useful substances with milk.
In order to maintain a balance of the three main nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), a nursing mother should consume 100-110 g of protein daily; 80−110 g of fat and 325−540 g of carbohydrates. To meet these needs, you need to eat 180−200 g of lean meat (turkey, chicken, veal) or fish (pike perch, hake, cod) every day.
They contain the necessary amount of protein and a small amount of fat. Also, be sure to eat dairy products – up to 1 liter of 1% milk or 1% kefir per day, 100−200 g of 5% curd, 1 egg. During lactation, these products are especially relevant because they contribute to the production of milk.
30 g of vegetable oil and 20 g of butter will add to the daily fat content. As for carbohydrates, in a day it is enough to eat no more than 2 slices of grain bread or bran bread and 50-60 g of cereals or durum pasta.
Every young mother will benefit from greens and vegetables in all forms: fresh, boiled, stewed (but not fat), and steamed. The daily rate is about 0.5 kg.
Vegetables contribute to active digestion, they contain a large amount of beneficial vitamins and minerals. And while they are all low-calorie.
Fruit per day requires 200−500 g. But keep in mind: because of the high caloric content, bananas, dates, dried apricots, raisins and other sweet fruits should be excluded.
If you do not breastfeed your baby and want to get rid of extra pounds soon, you can exclude bread and pasta from the diet, reduce the volume of dairy products by half, and the rest of the products adhere to the lower indicators. From time to time it is not forbidden to arrange “fasting” days.
Food products often have a mixed composition of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, so the share of each nutrient is difficult to calculate. The common denominator that combines all types of food is calorie content.
This index reflects the amount of energy that can be obtained from 1 g of a particular product. For convenience, the account is in kilocalories (1 kcal is equal to 1000 calories). Having a table of calorie foods, which you can easily find on the Internet, any mother can calculate how many calories she receives per day and compare the resulting number with existing norms.
Such calculations will help not only to cope with being overweight, but also to understand what you really eat. It is also useful to have a diary in which you will note the number of calories consumed and lost.
As for the rules, during the period of feeding, most mothers need 2500−3200 kcal per day. Figures vary depending on age, weight and physical activity. But there is another important factor.
The fact is that only for the production of milk daily requires about 800 kcal. The reserves of fat collected during pregnancy give about 300 kcal for these purposes.
It turns out that the missing amount (500 kcal over the usual norm) must be ensured by feeding. If the calories are not enough, the deficit can adversely affect lactation or cause a breakdown.
Noncore women nutritionists recommend a daily use of about 1800 kcal.
Nutritionists emphasize that nutrition for women after childbirth should be fractional. You need to eat at least five times a day, in small portions of 200-250 g. Gradually, the size of the stomach will decrease, and the desire to eat will decrease.
A nursing mother should coordinate her diet with the baby’s diet and eat food half an hour before each feeding (for a total of 5-6 meals). This scheme contributes to a better secretion of milk.
The last meal of the day is best arranged 4 hours before bedtime. Instead of dinner, you can drink kefir, ryazhenka, yogurt with 2.5% fat or 1% fat (you should not refuse breakfast in any circumstances!).
If you eat less often, for example, 2–3 times a day, the body will not be “sure” that it will receive the necessary amount of energy, and will begin to “protect” it and convert it into fat.
A nursing mother needs from 1.5 to 2 liters of fluid per day, 1.5 liters is enough for non-feeding. As drinks, bottled or boiled water, weak green or black tea, cranberry juice, compote of dried fruit (without sugar) and black currant, dogrose infusion and fermented milk drinks (kefir, ryazhenka) are suitable.
1) Refuse to roast. All products during this period it is better to boil, stew, bake or steam. Properly cooked food contains much less “unhealthy” fats, which are deposited on the waist and hips.
2) Change the cakes for dried fruit. Sweet pastries, which contain fast carbohydrates, as well as harmful food additives, it is desirable to completely cancel. “Sweet” hunger will help to calm dried fruits. They contain fructose, which, unlike glucose, does not convert to fat.
You can resort to the marshmallow with marshmallow.
3) Deceive the body. If you want to eat something tasty and not very healthy, eat a slice of turkey with a cucumber or a piece of lettuce. So the body is faster to get enough, because lean meat contains protein, which gives a feeling of saturation, and vegetables – slow carbohydrates, the body spends a lot of energy on digestion and as a result they are not deposited in your waist and hips in the form of extra pounds.
4) Get enough sleep. Duration of sleep affects the rate of metabolic processes (metabolism). Endocrinologists claim that this is an effect of hormones, because lack of sleep leads to a decrease in the level of leptin, a hormone that stimulates the body’s metabolism and reduces the feeling of hunger.
In addition, due to a short night’s sleep, the concentration of ghrelin, a hormone that increases the feeling of hunger, increases. As a result, people who sleep little gain weight more quickly.
5) In the evenings it makes sense to take a contrast shower. This procedure not only strengthens blood vessels, but also speeds up the metabolism, which means that excess fat will be burned faster.