Such a diagnosis is made when, under the influence of various reasons, the lumen of the bronchi narrows. According to recent studies, about 5% of children now suffer from this disease.
In children, seizures usually occur due to excessive body reaction to viral infection and allergens.
With SARS in infants, the bronchial mucosa becomes inflamed and thickens, and because of the abundance of mucus, the thin bronchi are narrowed and the baby has difficulty breathing. The air from the lungs begins to come out with a wheeze and a whistle.
This can be repeated once or twice, but when the child matures and the diameter of the bronchi increases, it will outgrow this obstruction. Similar episodes will remain in the past.
In an allergic child, asthma develops along the same path, only as they mature, the attacks of bronchospasm do not go away, but, on the contrary, begin against the background of any infection and in response to contact with the allergen.
If a baby has food allergies, usually cow’s milk, red spots appear on the skin, we are talking about atopic dermatitis. After one or two years, food allergy disappears, but a reaction to dust and pollen appears – allergic rhinitis.
Such a turn of events can lead to bouts of bronchospasm, not associated with SARS. Sometimes the picture is so typical that the diagnosis of “bronchial asthma” is even given to a baby.
Here heredity is of great importance. If both parents are allergic, the likelihood that the child will inherit the allergy and it can develop into asthma increases.
It is also important how the pregnancy proceeded, whether the infant was on artificial lung ventilation after birth, at what stage of the pregnancy he was born, or if the baby had intrauterine pneumonia.
Parents should be wary if the child is often sick and has no symptoms of frequent and noisy breathing without symptoms of ARVI. In this case, you need to contact a pediatrician who, if necessary, will refer the baby to an allergist for consultation.
It happens that with age, asthma goes away, but it’s impossible to wait for the baby to outgrow it. The disease must be under medical supervision.
The doctor will ask parents in detail about hereditary diseases, find out whether there are allergies and asthmatics in the family, when and how often there are bouts of difficulty breathing in a child. Be sure to listen to the baby’s lungs with a phonendoscope. But the spasm of the small bronchi in this way cannot be fixed.
Therefore, children over 5 years old investigate the function of external respiration. The child breathes three times with all his might into a special apparatus.
Then he is given to inhale the bronchodilator. If the indicators have improved significantly, then there is a hidden bronchospasm and asthma can be suspected. To determine the culprit of seizures, a blood test for allergens is prescribed or skin tests are done.
Usually it is recommended to show the baby ENT doctor. Inspection with this specialist will also help determine what is to blame – allergens or viruses.
An asthma attack begins with compulsive dry cough. The child complains of a feeling of constriction in the chest, his breathing becomes frequent and noisy, often accompanied by a whistle.
Dyspnea appears. The baby cannot lie down and takes a forced posture: he sits down, resting his palms on the edge of the chair or bed.
As a result, the intercostal spaces widen, the lung volume increases and asthma becomes slightly lighter, but not for long.
A first-aid medication that dilates the bronchi can help deal with these symptoms. It is inhaled for 5–7 minutes through an inhaler-nebulizer.
The device takes the drug from the liquid to the fog, and it reaches the lowest parts of the respiratory tract – the small bronchi.
When even the hormones are powerless, inhalation has to be done more than three times a day, you need to call an ambulance. The doctor will inject the medicine already intravenously.
In very severe cases, hospitalization may be required.
It often seems that the attack begins unexpectedly. Nothing like this!
He always has harbingers. Get a picfluometer – a device with which you can determine the amount of exhalation. For three months, in the morning and in the evening, exhaling three times into a tube and choosing the best indicator, you can understand which values are typical for your case.
If they decrease, consult a doctor to understand the cause. The reason for the visit to the allergist is a big gap between the morning and evening indicators. To correct the situation, the doctor will prescribe therapy – bronchodilator drugs and, if necessary, hormones.
There are also combined 2 in 1 medications. The effect lasts 12 hours. Typically, the attack can prevent and block on distant approaches.
Dose and frequency of administration may gradually decrease. Today, remission often lasts for years, and medication can be used quite rarely.
Moreover, the current level of development of allergology allows you to control even very severe forms of bronchial asthma.
The frequency of exacerbations is also reduced. Drugs have a minimum of side effects. The dose depends on the weight and age of the child.
Enter such drugs only once or twice a month. It does not cancel hormone therapy, but the doses of hormones gradually decrease.
The culprits of asthma attacks can be a variety of allergens: house dust, pollen, wool and epithelial cells that are in the urine or saliva of animals, dry food for fish, air pollutants. Because the more austere the home environment, the better for asthmatics. Get rid of carpets and heavy curtains, keep books on closed shelves, do wet cleaning regularly.
Get humidifiers and air purifiers in the apartment.
If among the allergens are pollen, about two weeks before the start of flowering anti-asthma drugs are prescribed. They are antihistamine or antileukotriene (histamines and leukotrienes are involved in an allergic reaction). This way you can prevent bronchospasm.
Modern medicines are drunk once a day. They do not cause drowsiness. Antihistamine sprays help prevent allergic rhinitis, and conjunctivitis – eye drops.
Only the doctor should recommend them, he should cancel them. Usually the course continues until flowering is over.