Consultants: Andrei POLIROV, physiologist, PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Surgery and Oncology, RUDN, a multi-disciplinary Soyuz clinic; Georgy KUZNETSOV, Gastroenterologist, Candidate of Medical Science, Center of Modern Medicine “Euromed Prestige”
If everyone were aging the same, they would have lived an equal number of years. But this does not happen, because each organism changes according to an individual plan, that is, it lives according to its own “clock” and has its own biological age, showing with what “achievements” a person has approached one or another frontier.
The biological age determines the degree of deterioration of the organism. In the 30s of the last century, American gerontologists discovered that someone in 40 years feels like 30, and someone in 30 has internal disorders like 50-year-olds.
And, accordingly, life prospects with such differences are not the same. It happens that at a specific point in time, one system of the body lags behind the biological age, while the other overtakes it. A complex survey will help to notice dangerous trends in time.
It lasts about 2 hours and consists of filling in a detailed questionnaire and passing 20 functional analyzes, including blood tests for blood sugar and cholesterol, ECG, spirometry (assessment of respiratory function), densitometry (determination of bone density), pulse measurement, cardiac load and pulmonary tests.
While the organism develops, the regenerative processes occurring in it are ahead of the degenerative ones. This happens until the age of 25, then a period of “maturity” begins – equilibrium is established.
It lasts about 5 years and is characterized by the fact that the number of dead and formed cells is approximately the same. After age 30, it takes its own age: from this point on, the mechanisms of aging start, which then only accelerates. It is clear that a person cannot live forever, but slowing down the destruction of the body is a feasible task.
Life expectancy is influenced by several factors: heredity, lifestyle and habitat.
Genetic problems can be detected using a special analysis – genotyping. It consists in comparing pairs of DNA chromosomes. For those who are in the same group, doctors determine all the inherited diseases, and for the neighboring ones – diseases that are most likely to be activated and affect the rate of aging.
For example, the immediate family “transferred” to the heir and diabetes mellitus type I, and coronary heart disease. But nature decreed that the first disease he did not develop, because the pancreas functions without failures, and the second happens sooner or later, because for this there are all conditions: insufficient blood supply to the vascular walls, leading to their premature destruction, or an increased tendency to form blood clots.
And so that this “early” does not manifest itself as long as possible, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the medical prescriptions regarding diet, work and rest, physical activity volumes, taking prescribed medications and vitamin supplements.
Genotyping – a set of analyzes to determine the likelihood of a disease – is offered by many laboratories. Most often this study is carried out 1 time at the age of 30, when the body starts the mechanisms of aging.
First, the doctors ask the patient about the diseases of his close relatives, measure his weight, height, blood pressure, pulse, then send him to blood and urine tests. Based on the information received, a list of potential diseases is compiled. As a rule, there are about 20 of them.
Then this list, together with biological material (blood or scrapes from the cheek mucosa) is sent to the laboratory. After a month, it becomes clear how to live on: in the conclusion of geneticists, the degree of risk of its implementation in the future is placed opposite each illness. It is rated on a scale from 0 to 6 and is always correlated with averages for a population.
The next task is to find the cause of a possible breakdown. For example, in diseases of the thyroid gland suspicions will fall primarily on iodine deficiency.
Then the doctors will have to find out why this element is not enough – due to the lack of iodine-containing products in the diet or in the inefficient assimilation of this trace element. After a series of additional surveys, the causes of all other failures will be identified and plans are made to eliminate them.
But not everything is so simple. More recently, British scientists have learned how to determine not just the biological age of a particular individual, but also the number of years measured for him in this world.
An indicator of the duration of terrestrial existence was the length of telomeres – special structures located at the end of the chromosome. They are in all cells of the body, but in one they are shortened, while in others (which are called stem cells) they are constantly lengthened, making the cell immortal. Stem cells are formed in the bone marrow and peripheral blood vessels.
Over time, each of them turns into a building material for tissues and organs – cells of the liver, dermis, epithelium, etc. In such a “reborn” form, they lose the ability to lengthen their telomeres and, sharing 50 times, die. In their place again come new cells formed from stem.
But the supply of immortal cells is limited and depleted with age. Thus, the resources of the renewal of the body sooner or later end.
From these observations, scientists have concluded: the shorter the telomeres, the less time is left in stock. The sensational discovery questioned the need to prevent hereditary diseases, because it turns out that no matter how much health you take care of, the last hour will strike right on schedule.
In Russia, such an analysis is not done yet, but you can prepare the material (blood or saliva) and send it by special mail to England or the USA. The answer will come in a month.
Nevertheless, there are much more weighty arguments in support of active actions than in favor of passive waiting and even more intense “burning through” of the days allotted by the sky. The choice is extremely simple: take your ailments seriously, or let everything go to chance.
The second option, among other troubles, promises premature wandering. The first, on the contrary, allows to avoid this sad fate. The fact is that a healthy lifestyle is a prerequisite for proper metabolism (metabolism).
When this complex mechanism fails, the body’s systems cease to work smoothly: organs lack nutrients and lose their ability to function normally, and harmful substances accumulate in the cells, causing their premature destruction. The first warning signs are fatigue without cause, headaches, insomnia, obesity and edema, which do not pass in 3-4 days.
With these symptoms, you should be alert and first try to fix the problem yourself by changing the diet. It is recommended to eat 5 times a day, at one time not to use more than 250 ml of food.
The ideal fluid intake schedule is a glass of water 30 minutes before a meal and a cup of green tea half an hour after the meal. Fluid is needed so that all waste and slags are removed from the body in a timely manner. Adhere to such rules month.
If the tide of energy does not happen, consult a doctor.
Power mode is not the only saving measure. No less important, for example, how carefully we chop the jaws of food, because the health of the gastrointestinal tract directly depends on this condition. At the rate recommended by the Federal Scientific Center of Hygiene them.
Erisman, each piece sent to his mouth must be chewed 33 times. Then, under the action of the enzymes of saliva, it is processed to such an extent that the stomach no longer has to spend additional resources on digesting the food lump, and hence its rate of wear decreases.
It is clear that not every modern person can afford to spend so much time on food, but if youth is at stake, you can try.
No less effort will have to be made by those who want to observe another difficult rule in our age: waking up in the morning without going anywhere. In order to tune in to work smoothly after a night’s rest, the body needs 2 hours. During this time, the production of cortisol, a hormone that inhibits activity, is slowed down at a natural pace, and the level of adrenaline, a hormone that stimulates the nervous system, increases.
If you speed up these processes by artificial means – taking a cold shower, doing intensive exercises, eating a portion of raw vegetables for breakfast – the body will experience stress. Once such overloads become daily, aging will be premature.
You can calculate your approximate biological age according to three key indicators, which reflect the current state of the main body systems (devices for measuring lung volume are portable and can be used independently at home):
You can determine if your biological age is ahead of your passport by using simple tests.
1) Connect the fingers of both hands, then unlock the large and rotate them first clockwise, and then against it. Do the same with other fingers.
If the exercise does not cause difficulties, then your biological age keeps pace with the passport.
2) Coordination test: shut your eyes and stand on one leg, lift the other 10 cm above the floor, do not hold anything (it is allowed to balance with your hands). If you stayed in this position for more than 30 seconds, your body works like in 30 years, in 20 seconds you will get 40 years, in 15 – already 50.
3) Biological age is also determined by external signs: after 35 it becomes easier to gain excess weight: if it increases by more than 800 g per year, it means that aging is faster than it should be.
4) Look carefully at the cornea of the pupil. If there is a white strip on its upper border, cholesterol levels are above normal.
And the wider the label, the more acute the problem.
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