Inherently allergic – this is the wrong reaction of the human body to contact with the most common substances. Moreover, allergens that provoke such a wrong “behavior” may be pollen, animal dander and dander, products … There are so many potential “provocateurs” that it is impossible to list them all.
One of the manifestations of allergy is a runny nose, or, as doctors say, allergic rhinitis – inflammation of the nasal mucosa. This disease can occur at any age, but most often develops between 3 and 4 years or later.
Having noticed the first symptoms of allergic rhinitis, parents should show the baby to the doctor as soon as possible. Appointed by the doctor tests and studies will help to correctly determine the cause of the disease, and the treatment will reduce the symptoms of allergies and make life easier for the whole family.
Doctors distinguish between seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. In both cases, the child is worried about itching in the nose, he often sneezes, and the symptoms of a cold sometimes subside, then, on the contrary, increase.
In addition, eyes may water and even conjunctivitis may occur.
With seasonal rhinitis, the appearance of symptoms is “tied” to a specific season (spring-summer) and the disease is called hay fever, or pollinosis (from the Latin pollen – pollen). It is caused by pollen from trees and grasses, as well as mold fungus spores.
An allergic reaction is caused by small particles that are carried by the wind over long distances and enter the body through the nasal mucosa.
In central Russia, a sharp increase in the concentration of pollen in the air accounts for 3 periods:
April – the end of May: at this time there is a high concentration of tree pollen in the air. Most often allergy is caused by pollen of birch, hazel, alder. In 70% of allergies to the pollen of these plants during this period, an allergic reaction to the products (cross-food allergy) can also occur: nuts, kiwi, apples, plums, nectarines and pears;
mid-June – late July: the time of flowering of grass grasses: timothy, hedgehogs of the national team, bluegrass, ryegrass, which are sown in urban lawns. Allergies to melons can begin, as well as cereals and products that include barley, oats, rye, wheat, soybeans;
The end of July – the beginning of September: it is time for weeds to bloom: wormwood, quinoa. There is a risk of a cross-allergic reaction to celery, leek, sweet peppers, garlic, parsley, oregano.
Manifestations of year-round allergic rhinitis, as its name implies, do not depend on the season. Its cause is house dust, mites that are present in it, pet hair, mold.
Symptoms of a runny nose (itching in the nose, frequent sneezing, difficulty in nasal breathing) usually occur in the morning after waking up and can disturb a child for weeks or even months. In addition, they can develop in the same place, for example, at a party where there are pets or upholstered furniture, carpets.
In this case, it is safe to say that the allergen that is constantly present in the environment is to blame.
The risk of developing allergic rhinitis is higher in children whose parents suffer from allergies. In this case, adults need to be especially attentive to younger family members in order not to miss the onset of the disease and consult a doctor in time.
In children, runny nose easily leads to complications. Since the nasopharynx and ear in babies are connected by a wide channel, rhinitis sometimes turns into inflammation of the auditory tubes (eustachitis) and middle ear (otitis).
So, in any case, it is impossible to do without consulting a doctor and subsequent treatment.
Regardless of the intended diagnosis, the baby should be examined by two specialists: an otolaryngologist and an allergist-immunologist. An ENT specialist excludes sinusitis and an increase in adenoids; an allergist-immunologist determines which allergens the body reacts to.
Before visiting the doctor, to alleviate the condition of the child, you can irrigate your nose with sea water spray. With the help of this tool possible allergen is washed off from the nasal mucosa.
It is also not forbidden to take an antihistamine, which was previously used and did not cause side effects.
The examination, which is prescribed by an allergist, includes samples or a blood test to determine allergen-specific immunoglobulins E. When carrying out skin tests, an allergen is applied to the inner surface of the forearm – the reaction manifests itself already after 20 minutes.
This is the most reliable method of diagnosis, but it can not be carried out during an exacerbation of the disease, and 5 days before the procedure, antihistamines should be discontinued. For these reasons, it is best to conduct skin testing in the winter when the risk of exacerbations is minimal.
Depending on the results of the examination, the doctor will recommend how to eliminate contact with the allergen, if at all possible. Symptomatic therapy is also prescribed, which is designed to reduce the manifestations of the disease.
From the age of 5, if there are no contraindications and the symptoms of allergic rhinitis occur annually in the same season, allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is carried out under the careful control of the allergist-immunologist. From the name it is already clear that the disease is treated with an allergen that causes the corresponding symptoms.
As for folk remedies, then, as practice shows, they only worsen the condition of the child. The precious time is running out, and the risk of developing complications becomes greater.
For this reason, doctors never recommend them.
Parents should understand that allergic rhinitis should not be left without treatment. Otherwise, according to experts, it can lead to the development of bronchial asthma.
To reduce allergies, it is important to protect the child from contact with allergens. We are talking about pets, dust, mold, mites. Of course, completely get rid of the latter is very difficult, nevertheless, try to do everything possible to reduce the risk of a child’s communication with these allergens.
Here are the recommendations for all cases.
- Change bedding every week.
- Clean carpets and heavy curtains: they are mites.
- Sleep on pillows with synthetic fillers and change them once a year.
- Furnish the house with furniture made of wood, leather or vinyl, but not with fabric upholstery.
- Remove the TV and computer from the nursery: they attract dust to themselves.
- 2-3 times a week do a wet cleaning.
- Wipe the dust off the batteries.
- Tightly close the cabinet doors, and keep all small items on the glazed shelves.
- If the house has a large library, remove the books under the glass: library dust is one of the strongest allergens.
- Maintain a humidity of 40% at home.
- Use air conditioning and do not forget to clean it once a year.
- Air the apartment at least 2 times a day.
- For furniture use acaricides – chemical compounds that kill ticks.
- Use vacuum cleaners with special HEPA microfilters.
- Use the kitchen hood: it removes odors that irritate the nasal mucosa.
- If the child is allergic, do not start pets.
- For washing children’s clothes, use special children’s powders.
- When seasonal rhinitis in the period of mass flowering of plants, try to go out after the rain, when the concentration of pollen in the air is minimal.
- After returning with the baby from the walk, wash the baby and change it into clean clothes.
- For allergic rhinitis in the period of mass flowering of plants, use indoor air purifiers.
- In case of allergic rhinitis, during the period of mass flowering of plants, change the child’s clothes every day, bathe him before bed and wash his head.
- When seasonal rhinitis in the period of mass flowering of plants, if possible, try to travel to another climatic zone, where plants causing an allergic reaction either bloom at another time, or do not grow at all. The most favorable is mountainous terrain at an altitude of more than 500 m.
- Completely eliminate contact with tobacco smoke and bleach.
- Soft toys in the summer should be well heated in the sun and in any season once a month to wash in the washing machine.
- Try, especially during the mass flowering season, to exclude foods that may cause cross-nutritional reactions from the child’s menu.