Not only the beauty of a smile, but also our profile and face depends on the bite, such as the closing of the dental arches. This is because the growth of the teeth is closely related to the formation of the bones of the facial skeleton. Both those and others begin to develop in the prenatal period and continue to grow in size after the baby is born.
So, it is necessary to follow the evolution in the mouth of a child with heightened vigilance almost from the moment of conception until the end of the institute. The sooner the failure is detected and corrected, the better the prognosis for the future will be, because the wrong bite is not always limited to the curvature of the teeth.
The laying of the teeth begins on the 7-13th week of intrauterine development. During this period, dental rudiments of all milk and several permanent teeth (incisors and molars) are formed. As the period increases, the tooth tissue gradually absorbs minerals – calcium, magnesium, fluorine and some others, due to which the crystal lattice of the teeth hardens.
This multistep process is called mineralization and lasts several years in total. The second stage is differentiation: the teeth gradually begin to acquire the outlines set by the evolution. At the third stage, a separate enamel, dentin and cement are formed.
The result of all these intrauterine stages can be seen immediately after the birth of the baby on the X-ray. Normally, newborns in each jaw should have 10 rudiments of milky and 8 rudiments of permanent teeth.
The eruption period starts from 6 months, and a fully milky bite is formed by 3–3.5 years. The next stage is resorption, or resorption of the roots of milk teeth. This preparatory stage begins at 4 years.
Dentition renewal goes from 5.5 to 13 years. But this is not the final stage.
The bite continues to form further, because the jaws develop to 21 years. By the way, this is precisely why implants are not installed before this time for boys and girls who have lost a permanent tooth for various reasons, otherwise the deformation of the facial skeleton cannot be avoided.
Failures can occur at any of the stages, and it is better to know about adverse factors in advance.
During the period of prenatal development, when the budding of tooth buds is underway, the disease is primarily caused by the mother’s disease. The greatest risk comes from viral and genital infections.
The enamel covering the outer part of the tooth is formed first, therefore it becomes their main target. If she suffers, her teeth may become covered with dark or white spots, grow brittle or uneven. In the worst case scenario, teeth in the mouth will not appear at all.
How the enamel develops will ultimately depend on the bite, because if the teeth are crooked or different in size, the tooth rows will not close correctly. Nevertheless, to panic ahead of time is not worth it.
Although the negative effects of the same rubella and measles have been proven by science, it is extremely difficult to predict the scale of the disaster unequivocally. The main thing for any cold or infection in time to contact an obstetrician-gynecologist and undergo a prescribed course of treatment.
In absentia, a disturbance of calcium metabolism in the body of a pregnant woman can also affect the future bite. The lack of an important mineral leads to deformation of the jaw bones, which in most cases develops a deep occlusion – an anomaly in which the upper jaw is strongly protruding.
Suffer from deficiency and teeth. Changes in hormonal levels also entail unpleasant consequences. So, with hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, there is often a delay in the time of eruption and change of milk teeth to permanent ones.
Hyperthyroidism (hyperfunction) of the thyroid gland often leads to slower growth of the jaw and distortion of the profile.
Carefully consider the medication. Even if it is written on the packaging that pregnancy and lactation are not contraindications, you must first learn the opinion of the doctor.
But you will have to monitor not only your health. For occlusion, the pressure force of the amniotic fluid on the fetus and even the uncomfortable position of the baby in the mother’s belly are important. During this period, the child’s bones of the skull are very mobile and are not yet interconnected, so when you press one of them, the others are usually displaced, including the lower jaw.
You can insure yourself by giving up excessive physical exertion and lifting weights.
With all the above infections, diseases and deficiencies, the baby can face both in the mother’s stomach and outside. However, the main danger is still rickets: with this disease, the delay in eruption occurs in 100% of cases due to impaired calcium-phosphorus metabolism.
And although timely treatment allows you to significantly smooth out the situation, it is unlikely that you will be able to completely solve the problem with your teeth.
Respiratory diseases, which are particularly susceptible to babies, also need rapid correction. If a child breathes through his mouth for a long time, whether it is in chronic rhinitis or inflammation of the adenoids, the chewing muscles located in the cheeks begin to put pressure on the dentition, which is why they contract.
Then the so-called gothic palate is formed and the bite is broken: the lower jaw moves back and is blocked in this position. In this case, orthodontic correction should be carried out against the background of the treatment prescribed by the ENT, otherwise it will not give the desired fruits.
However, not everything in this world depends on providence: parents make some mistakes themselves. So, if a mother feeds a crumb with dishes of too soft consistency during the period when his chewing apparatus requires solid food, she does him a disservice. In order for the bone tissue to develop and grow, it needs an adequate load.
Malocclusion occurs because the jaws begin to grow more slowly than necessary, and permanent teeth become cramped in them.
Some children’s habits adults also leave without proper attention, and in vain. For example, many babies love to suck their thumb, bite their lips, retract their cheeks.
And these lovely funs lead to a bite disorder: the upper teeth move forward in time, the lower teeth go back, and the tooth rows no longer close. Dummy, respectively, is also harmless.
If it is abused, another, but no less sad attack may occur: an open bite, when a gap is formed between the teeth between the jaws.
In a vicious but different principle, even an incorrectly chosen nipple on the bottle works. If the hole is too wide, the child does not have to put almost any effort, and this means that the bone tissue does not receive the proper load. Although the excessive tension of the chewing and facial muscles (for example, due to constant stress) also does not lead to anything good.
If a baby gets used to chewing food on one side, sleeping on one side or in an irregular pose – with his head thrown back or his chin pressed to his chest, asymmetric development of the jaws is also guaranteed.
The bite may suffer due to the premature loss of milk teeth. If parents miss tooth decay, the doctor will have to resort to a radical measure – removal. The problem is that, as soon as a gap is created in the tooth rows, it will immediately be tried to fill the adjacent teeth, both from the sides and from the opposite jaw.
And how not to remember: it is not uncommon for adults to develop caries in children. The fact that night feeds are as dangerous as sweets, almost no one guesses. In a dream, saliva is produced less, and plaque from milk or a mixture of teeth is not washed off.
Since such food is loved not only by babies, but also by pathogenic bacteria, ideal conditions are created for the development of caries.
It is possible to start observing the development of bite from the moment when the baby’s first teeth erupt. Despite the fact that the timing of their appearance is rather vague, and therefore lax, the dentist should be contacted if the first birthday of the joyful changes in the baby did not happen in the mouth.
An X-ray of both jaws (to calculate the number of tooth rudiments or to make sure they are available) and the tests prescribed by the pediatrician (to exclude diseases affecting the formation of dental tissue) will help to understand the reasons for the delay.
Prophylactic examinations should be done every 6 months, and in 3 years the dentist should evaluate the milk bite. If at this point some of the teeth do not cut through, removable dentures in the form of plastic plaster casts will solve the problem. If one of the milk teeth falls out ahead of time, the doctor will put an orthodontic spreader in its place.
This device will prevent the displacement of adjacent teeth and save the necessary space for a permanent tooth, which will soon erupt into this area.
Improper formation or position of the jaws will fix the special devices – trainers. They also help to relax overstressed muscles.
These silicone removable “simulators”, similar to boxing mouthguards, are worn by the baby at night, and during the day wears them for several minutes intermittently (a total of about an hour). You can use trainers from 4-6 years, when you have a chance to agree with the child.
Wean the baby from the harmful “sucking” habits called the so-called Hinza damper. They are also intended primarily for night wear and can be used in children from 1–1.5 years.
Serious bite irregularities are corrected with braces, but these constructions are put to children only after 12 years (partial braces may appear in the baby’s mouth earlier, but this will be only the personal choice of the dentist, who always has another alternative).
Often, problems with a baby’s bite occur because of an oversight of parents. The following points should pay close attention:
- Caries must be treated on time, but, given that small children rarely voice their complaints, only a professional can notice that something is wrong. Conclusion: you need to drive your child to the dentist regularly.
- If the pediatrician prescribed night feedings, after the meal, do not forget to wipe the baby teeth with gauze dipped in water and wound on a finger. So you can reduce the risk of caries.
- The bottle nipple must be selected with a narrow hole so that the chewing muscles and jaws work actively.
- In order for the trainers or Hinz’s flaps to remain in place at night, the child must get used to wearing them during the day (otherwise he will automatically and spontaneously spit them out). The task of parents is to constantly monitor the baby.
- In order for the crumb in a dream not to throw back his head and not lower it to his chest, buy him the correct pillow in the shape of a roller. Flat models are strictly not suitable.
- After 3 years, the child’s teeth should gradually grind down. This is a physiological process. But if it does not start, polishing will be required, otherwise the lower jaw will not be able to move forward as it should be.
- At about the same time, gaps appear between the teeth. No need to be scared. The jaw bones grow, but the milk teeth do not, besides, the permanent teeth are larger than the milk teeth, so a priori they will need more space. If gaps do not appear, do not make hasty conclusions. Perhaps over time, the problem will be solved by itself, but this process should be monitored by a doctor.