The organs of the baby’s senses are gradually developing: the crumb is already capable of keeping a look on the face of the mother or hanging toy. By the end of the 2nd month, the child smoothly watches the objects moving horizontally, a little later – vertically, and then in a circle.
The infant may briefly concentrate on sound pictures: he listens to the voice of his mother or a musical melody, but so far his attention is not enough for half a minute.
TIP. One of the first toys in the life of a baby is a music mobile. Hang it at the level of the baby’s chest (not directly above the head) and turn on for 10 minutes so that the crumb does not get tired.
Once on the belly, the baby raises its head and tries to keep it in that position. Such training should be encouraged: any physical activity helps to strengthen the muscles.
In all children, the development of the muscular system occurs from top to bottom: first, the neck muscles get stronger (this allows you to hold and then turn your head), then the back, arms, and finally the legs.
Kids are born with a small degree of farsightedness (+ 3-4 diopters) and do not clearly see objects that are closer than 20–30 cm from the eyes. The optimal distance from which toys should be shown to the child is from 30 to 70 cm. The first color perceived by the baby is red, a little later blue and green, then yellow.
It is good if the toys are multi-colored, not monotonous – the vision is trained by contrasting combinations (for example, red and green, yellow and blue – children distinguish these oppositions first). For the proper development of the eyes, the baby should look at objects close to him and away from him. Hang bright pictures on the walls of the children and show them to the child from different distances; more often bring it to the window and look at the objects in the yard.
Eyesight develops with motor skills, and therefore it is important for the child not only to examine objects, but also to touch them, grab, throw, pull in the mouth. From the second half of the year, the baby should have cubes and pyramids: with their help, the baby will learn to relate the appearance of the object with its size and volume, feel the difference between the part and the whole.
The kid looks at large moving objects with a look and with pleasure considers mother`s face. Scarce recognizes loved ones from a distance of 2–3 meters and rejoices when he sees them, and at the sight of her mother’s breast or bottle of milk, she can impatiently smack and stretch her lips.
Experts call this behavior a complex of revival: in response to the gentle treatment of an adult, the little one starts to smile, vigorously move the arms and legs, to shout, making sounds “a”, “y”, “s” or syllables “ha”, “kha”, “ma “.
A two-month-old child has a good ear: he is able to hear even a low sound from about 3 meters distance and turn his head in the direction from which he can hear.
Lying on his stomach, the little one holds his head well: he can be in this position for a full minute or even longer. Ladosha baby is not so tightly clenched into fists, as before.
Now, if you put a toy in his pen, he will hold it for a bit before dropping it.
TIP. It seems to adults that, looking around, the baby understands little, but he perceives a lot and this experience is very important for his development. For example, when walking with a baby, take him out of the stroller, let’s look around, touch something, listen to the surrounding sounds – and be sure to comment on everything that happens around.
The crumb shows more and more interest to the surrounding world: if you put him on his tummy, he will try to rise higher, leaning on his forearms. In this position, the baby loves to watch the movements of the mother or the flickering of pictures on the TV screen.
TIP. So that the child’s vision and nervous system do not receive an extra load, it’s better to watch movies or battles with computer game characters in the absence of a baby. Even if he is quietly asleep at this time, the background noise creates latent excitation of the nervous system.
The crumb tries to grab toys with his hand – now he will have very good play mats and arcs. But his favorite fun is … his own hands: he studies them with interest, feels them, pulls them into his mouth.
If earlier, in order to examine a new toy, the crumb turned to her with its entire body, but now it is enough for him to simply translate a glance in its direction. The kid learns to estimate the distance by eye and to determine in advance how far you need to reach out.
A four-month child understands that adults are turning to him, even if he does not see them. The secret is that at this moment the tone of your voice becomes higher, the vowels stretch, and the words are repeated several times.
This manner really caresses the ear of the child – studies show that the kids react to such treatment more willingly.
The little gymnast is still training to hold his body, leaning on the handles and pulling his head forward. Now he is reaching a new level, straightening his arms and leaning on his hands.
Lying on his stomach, the crumb can now deftly roll over onto his back.
TIP. The time has come when the baby literally not for a second can be left unattended in dangerous places like a changing table. Even if you just have to turn away, hold the child with your hand.
The development of children under 1 year is followed by doctors of various specialties. The work of the nervous system, which controls the basic functions of the body, is assessed by a neurologist, the maturation of the musculoskeletal system is an orthopedist. The surgeon checks if the child has problems requiring surgery; The ophthalmologist and the otolaryngologist monitor vision and hearing, and the dentist monitors the appearance of the first teeth.
But the main link of this chain is a pediatrician. It is he who evaluates the growth and development of the baby “in dynamics” during regular examinations: up to 6 months they occur every month, then 1 time in 2 months up to a year.
And how often do you need to show your baby to other specialists?
- 1 month – surgeon, neurologist, orthopedist, oculist
- 3 months – otolaryngologist
- 6 months – surgeon, neurologist, orthopedist, oculist
- 12 months – surgeon, neurologist, orthopedist, oculist, dentist
The crumb already knows who is his and who is a stranger, and at the sight of a stranger can cry. He distinguishes not only the voices of his relatives, but also their intonations: the strict tone makes him alert, and the gentle tone makes him smile.
In his personal vocal repertoire a new part appears – screech. And although it is not very pleasant for an adult ear, this is an important stage in the development of a baby’s speech, whose vocal cords so far only can produce high sounds.
The kid confidently takes the toys with his right and left hands, grabbing the object with his palm, and leaving his thumb extended. True, everything that comes to his hands, immediately turns on the floor.
The Karapuz has learned to roll from back to belly and is now spinning in all directions. He is close to the ability to sit, but for now he can stay in this position only if he is supported under the back.
The horizontal position suits him less: for example, reclining on the mother’s lap, he struggles upwards with all his strength.
TIP. By the end of the first semester of life, many parents have to change the cradle for a walking model. For the development of vision, it is important that the crumb look not only at objects close to him, but also into the distance (and this can be done mainly for a walk), so put him in a wheelchair with your back to yourself or choose models with a flip handle.
The kid already knows that the sounds are different, and therefore, you need to respond to them in different ways. And relatives by this time have a firm conviction that their child already understands everything.
The child learns sign language, and you have to learn it together: try to back up simple appeals and requests (“bye”, “come to me”, “give”).
A six-month baby is trying to sit, leaning on his hands. Such a skill is the second, after the ability to hold the head, a serious step small to assuming an upright position. It is important that the baby sit with a straight back: if the baby starts to slouch, it means that he is tired and his position must be changed.
Otherwise, the blood flow in the spinal column may be disturbed, and this will slow down the further development of movement skills.
The era of big journeys begins – the little one tries to crawl in their bellies. Each of its routes has a specific goal: for example, a mother, a bottle or a favorite rattle.
By the way, now the problem of choosing – which of the toys to do in the first place – no longer put the kid at a dead end. He will take a toy in each pen and be able to shift them from one to another, if he wants.
The time has come to learn to eat from a spoon, and the child will be trained to remove food from her lips.
TIP. For the first experiments, a flat spoon is best suited, and so that it does not damage the sensitive toothless gums of the baby, choose special children’s products made of silicone or soft plastic.
The picture of the world becomes for a child three-dimensional: the crumb can already appreciate the size of the toy and see whether it fits in one hand or both are needed. From now on, you can teach your baby to distinguish shapes: put a ball, a cube, a cone into his pen and show that the first can roll, the second – stand either on one face or another, the third one has a smooth base and a sharp tip.
A seven-month-old baby can sit on his own or with one arm, and crawling is already a familiar habit for him.
TIP. A simple game will help to direct the child’s energy “in a peaceful direction” and at the same time to develop his ability to move: ask the child to find objects that are on the sidelines and to get to them yourself. Bright and simple toys are best suited for such exercises: a ball, a pyramid, etc.
The look of the baby is very attracted to unfamiliar objects: when he sees something new, he becomes animated or surprised. He will not only be able to find well-known things at your request, but he will also show with his eyes and accompany with joyful “gyy”.
An eight-month-old crumb sits confidently without support. He gets up on all fours and, tearing off his hands, will stay on his knees.
If at this moment there is a support near (for example, the side of the crib), he can try to pull himself up and stand on his feet.
The fine motor skills of the child (movements of the hands and fingers) develop, and the baby can already wave to you “goodbye”, clap your hands or pull the sock off your feet. And he knows how to hold tightly in his fist and nibble drying or cookies, dip his fingers in a plate and, with ecstasy, suck on or smear the mashed potatoes on the table.
TIP. No matter how upsetting the prospect of cleaning, let your baby make a mess, or even better – offer him finger paints. With their help, not only motor skills will be developed, but also touch, color perception, and creativity.
The small one continues to master the “adult” dish: an intermediate stage on the way to the cup can be a bowl with a soft rubber spout. Practical multifunctional models with no spillage with a removable lid and handles will be convenient for both beginners and older children.
An inquisitive child closely watches adults: he immediately notices the mood in which the mother is with whom the grandmother is talking and what the father is carrying.
The crumb still crawls a lot, but if earlier he was pulling himself up on his arms, dragging his legs, now he alternately alternately moves his right pair of limbs, then his left.
A great achievement of this period: the little one finally took up the vertical position and now stands confidently, leaning on the wall or mother’s hand, and even tries to move along the support. In the baby, the desire to rise up awakens, and he begins to master the “upper tiers” of the apartment.
A curious crumb reaches for objects that are higher than his height, trying to climb on low sofas or chairs.
The child enthusiastically fiddles with small objects and easily handles several at once. He already knows how to collect them from the floor, and the small things are not enough with the whole palm, but with two or three fingers (the so-called pincer grip).
The future helper, in his own way, puts things in order in the house: he takes things out of the boxes, parses simple pyramid-type toys and throws everything around the room.
TIP. As soon as the baby starts to get up, lower the bottom of the crib as much as possible so that it cannot roll over the edge.
The kid can already quickly look from the birds outside the window to his own fingers – this ability is called visual accommodation. But the eye of the baby is still imperfect, and when the mother moves away even to the far corner of the room, she seems very far away (by the way, this is one of the reasons why children literally do not like to let adults go a step or two).
Pushing away from her mother’s hands, the kid learns to stand by himself, and sometimes complicates his task: he stands, then crouches and clumsily rises. Parents now will not be able to sit quietly, because the crumb already gladly walks by the handles and pulls mom wherever she wants.
Now the kid understands why different toys are needed, and uses them for their intended purpose: rolls a typewriter, throws a ball, flips a book. The child can finally occupy himself and easily finds entertainment for about twenty minutes.
TIP. The ten-month-old pipshack distinguishes how different things “sing”: the clock ticks, the phone rings, and tap water drips. More often arrange his home “concerts”!
The development of each child, on the one hand, occurs in its own rhythm, and on the other, it is subordinated to a single pattern for all children. Knowing in what sequence and timeframes the kids usually learn certain skills, parents can better understand their baby and help him if difficulties arise. Developmental standards formulated by doctors are guidelines that help to assess a child’s physical and mental health.
Following them is especially important at the stage of mastering the simplest skills (for example, to hold one’s head or roll over): if the deviation is more than 2 months, it is worth consulting with a doctor. But the more difficult the skill, the more time it takes to master it: for example, the baby can take the first steps at 10 and 15 months.
But if the prerequisites for mastering new skills are noticeable, then real success is just a matter of time.
Attention and curiosity of the baby grow day by day. Now, as a guest, he no longer starts crying because of fear, but intently examines the new situation.
To firmly stand on his feet, the toddler no longer needs his mother’s support – he proudly stands himself. The baby persistently learns to bend and pick up toys from the floor, but for now he has to squat or fall on all fours.
TIP. The path to the long-awaited first steps is never smooth: you do not need to rush every time to your child to help him sit or stand. The child must make independent attempts – so he quickly learns to stand and walk.
The 11-month-old baby has many interesting activities. He finds hidden toys, rolls a ball, confidently parses the pyramid and tries, although unsuccessfully for the most part, to put the rings on the rod again (it is easier to do when the rings are the same size). He puts the items in the container, with pleasure and “to the public” shows “bye-bye”, “flashlights”, etc.
By the year the little acrobat can do a lot: he sits, stands, crawls, climbs, and finally walks by himself – while it is unstable, but persistent. A fidget walks, spreading his legs wide and awkwardly, often falls, but these falls are harmless and even necessary because they teach the child to group and develop a sense of balance.
A restless kid is constantly on the move, and now he especially likes toys that can move with him: toy carriages, gurneys, balls, cars.
Now the little one can perform two different actions at the same time: for example, he can walk and carry a toy in his hand. He not only copies the behavior of adults, but also invents new ways of using objects, many of which would not even have come to the head of older ones.
Nevertheless, the naughty person can already be influenced by the word: he will obey if you say “no,” “give,” “put.”
The active desire of the child to imitate the elders can now be used to teach the simplest self-care skills to the crumbs. A one-year-old child is already under the power to eat a few spoons of puree, drink from a tea bowl or a cup, wash and brush her hair (to the best of his ability), and in the evenings put his toys in the box.
While playing, the little one wants to be like adults, so he is happy to be included in the daily affairs of his elders: he cuddles the floor with a rag, rinses the laundry in the basin, rubs his shoes.
TIP. Encourage your child to participate in “economic activities”, and at the same time, suggest educational games suitable for age: dense puzzles of two parts, pyramids with rings of the same diameter, and simple-shaped frame inserts (for example, with animal figures).
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