The child who celebrates his first birthday must undergo a medical examination: visit a surgeon, an ophthalmologist, a dentist, a neurologist, an otolaryngologist, a surgeon and an orthopedist. You should also pass a general blood and urine tests, stool analysis for worms eggs and scraping from the anus to enterobiosis.
The latter allows time to identify a parasitic disease, the causative agent of which are pinworms – small roundworms that enter the intestine.
The next visit to the district therapist will occur in 3 months: in the second year of life, preventive examinations are carried out less frequently – once a quarter. If deviations from the norm are detected, the doctor directs the child to narrow specialists.
For a year, a child should gain about 2 kg in weight and grow by an average of 2 cm per month. At 3 years, the pediatrician, neurologist, orthopedist, ophthalmologist will examine the crumbs, you should also show the child to the dentist. At this age, pass general blood and urine tests, as well as feces on the eggs of worms.
If the kid goes to kindergarten, then according to the results of clinical examination, he is issued the corresponding certificate.
Do not forget about preventive vaccinations. At the age from one to three years, most revaccinations fall.
They are aimed at maintaining immunity, which was developed during previous vaccinations. So, in the second and third year of life, in accordance with the national immunization schedule, the baby passes:
- at 12 months – vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps and the fourth vaccination against viral hepatitis B;
- at 18 months – the first revaccination against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hemophilic infection;
- in 20 months – the second revaccination against poliomyelitis, but this time already a live vaccine;
- in 2 years – vaccination against pneumococcal infection and chicken pox (optional);
- at 3 years – vaccination against viral hepatitis A;
- 3.5 years – revaccination against viral hepatitis A.
The age of 1-3 years is considered a critical period for the formation of the immune system, the time of active formation of local immunity. Contacts of the baby with the outside world are expanding rapidly, many children begin to attend developmental classes in children’s centers, a group of short-term stays in kindergarten, and at 3 years many tots spend the whole day in an institution.
During this period, most children begin to get sick often, sometimes one illness smoothly into another. This is a protective reaction of the body of the baby and his psyche to the change in the usual living conditions. In addition, in kindergarten a child comes in contact with a large number of pathogens, and its mucous membranes are vulnerable, since local immunity is still imperfect.
And still, it’s still not worth refusing from preschool or visiting developmental classes. “Home” children, of course, get sick less often. But as soon as they start going to school, the frequency of viral infections in them increases dramatically.
At the same time, their “organized” peers to the first class have time to get acquainted with many viruses and appear less frequently on the bulletin.
Treat this situation as a “training” of the body: in a collision with “outsiders”, the immune system produces antibodies that in the future will help to cope with various ailments more quickly or prevent them from developing at all.
Such “training”, according to immunologists, may be 8-12 per year. In addition, for a year, a child can suffer 1–2 fairly severe viral infections – influenza, adenovirus infection.
If the number of illnesses in the end did not go beyond these limits, then everything is in order with the crumb, the work of his immune system corresponds to the age norm, and he does not need any immunostimulating drugs. Their use will only weaken the immune system.
In addition, immunostimulants have contraindications and side effects may occur as a result of the use of such agents. Much more beneficial for the crumbs will be a balanced diet of vitamins and microelements, adherence to the day, physical activity and tempering procedures.
To strengthen the nervous system of the baby, take him to visit, to children’s entertainment, in parks. Teach him to the conditions in which he will have to adapt to new conditions and change the forms of his behavior.
In 2-3 years due to the active “exchange” by various microorganisms with peers, there is an active growth of the tonsils and lymph nodes. This element of innate immunity is the first line of defense against potential pathogens.
When they become infected, they grow and become inflamed.
The rules of prophylaxis are again simple and universal: a healthy lifestyle, long walks, sports, hardening. As a hardening, by the way, you can gradually accustom the baby to cold food and drinks, for example, to introduce ice cream into the child’s diet. In order for the baby to become accustomed to the effects of the cold and become not so sensitive to him, he consistently and regularly arranges contrasting douches and baths for him, bathing in cool water, and trips to seaside resorts will be helpful.
These effective procedures will increase both general and local peanut immunity.
In case of a violation of nasal breathing, breathing exercises can help in addition to medications – balloon inflation, blowing bubbles. Older children will benefit from singing and playing wind instruments.
- does not immediately turn when his name is;
- does not pay attention to the sounds surrounding him, even loud enough;
- does not respond to its name; • does not communicate with simple words or phrases;
- does not respond to requests if he does not see the speaker.
- Independently walks, crouches, gets up, can get on a chair;
- It babbles for a long time, repeats words after adults, imitates sounds, knows a dozen words;
- shows parts of his body; collects a pyramid, opens and closes boxes.
- He walks, runs, can rise and descend from the stairs himself;
- uses the pot, can be restrained when he wants to go to the toilet;
- speaks in simple sentences, knows about a hundred words;
- clearly sees and determines the distance by eye;
- knows how to dress and undress;
- holds a pencil, draws, sculpts.
- Moves a lot, runs, jumps;
- speaks without a word, asks many questions;
- communicates with other children;
- he knows his first and last name, remembers simple poems and melodies, listens to stories from pictures;
- can concentrate for 5-10 minutes, briefly occupy yourself.
After 2 years, the baby begins to “join” a sedentary lifestyle. He draws, sculpts, plays board games, watches TV, gets acquainted with a laptop and other gadgets, at the same time dramatically increases the load on his eyes and spine.
So that this does not affect the health of the baby, ophthalmologists and orthopedists advise to pay attention to the arrangement of the workplace – the table at which the child draws, sculpts and does other things, and the pose of the one sitting behind him.
- The height of the table and chair, the angle of the table top should be adjusted.
- The child should fully lean on the back of the chair, the feet of the entire foot should be on the floor.
- Between the trunk and the thigh, as well as between the lower leg and the thigh, an angle of 90 ° should be maintained.
- If the legs do not reach the floor, they need a stand under them.
- The desktop should stand in the most light place – by the window, but not opposite it, otherwise the sun glare falling on the table surface will be reflected in the eyes and create additional load for them.
The child may bend over the table not because he sees badly, but because his neck muscles are tired. For this reason, every 15–20 minutes of training, small breaks should be taken so that the little tot can stand and move.
When working with gadgets, the distance from the eyes to the monitor should be 50–70 cm. Watching a TV is allowed from a distance of at least 3 m. In the evening, you should look at the screen by turning on the general lighting and a desk lamp.
In 3-4 years, you can watch TV about 40 minutes a day, but it is better to split the viewing into 2 sessions. The operating time with electronic devices should not exceed 10 minutes, and a total of 30 minutes per day.