There is a standard set of infectious diseases: chickenpox, rubella, parotitis, scarlet fever and measles. All except for scarlet fever are viral, scarlet fever is a bacterial infection.
Infections are transmitted by airborne droplets, in person. But viruses and bacteria remain on objects touched by a sick person.
And children often pull a variety of things in their mouths, so infection can occur through a household route.
Almost all children suffer from infectious diseases up to 10 years, and the peak of the incidence is between 2 and 5 years old. The reason is simple: kids begin to actively communicate with other children, go to kindergarten, keep their parents company on a shopping trip. Surprisingly for his body, a lot of people become around the child, and each person can be a carrier of the virus.
But this should not be afraid. Children should have been ill, only in this case they will develop the necessary immunity.
After all, for him the fight against viruses is the most effective training.
The first symptoms of an infectious disease can be like a cold. The task of the parents is to call the doctor if the baby suddenly became irritable or whiny, lost his appetite or had a little fever.
If it is known that there is at least one person infected with the child’s environment (regardless of his age), call the pediatrician, noticing even the most minor changes in the baby’s well-being. It is very important to make a diagnosis in time, because the health of not only your child, but also all children and adults that surround him depends on it.
It is sometimes difficult to determine exactly what the baby got infected with: in the early stages, all diseases are similar to each other, but each infection has a special identification symptom.
Chickenpox (chickenpox) is the most common infectious viral disease in babies. Common symptoms: chills, headache, loss of appetite, fever. Specific symptom: a characteristic rash, on the skin and mucous membranes are formed small bubbles with transparent contents.
Simultaneously with the appearance of the rash, as a rule, the temperature rises sharply (up to 39–39.5 ºС).
Rubella is the second most common viral infection. Common symptoms are similar to chickenpox.
Specific symptoms: an enlarged lymph nodes (especially the posterior cervical and occipital) and a puny pink rash that begins with a rash on the face and spreads throughout the body. The rubella rash does not blend and may itch.
Epidemic parotitis (mumps) – the child experiences general weakness, loss of appetite, his body temperature rises. Specific symptoms: pain in the ear, dry mouth, swelling in the neck.
Scarlet fever. Common symptoms are similar to all viral infectious diseases.
Specific symptom: bright red tongue with well-defined papillae and punctate rash.
Measles. With measles, the baby has high fever (up to 40.5 ºС), the mucous membranes of the mouth and upper respiratory tract are inflamed, and suppurative conjunctivitis often appears. Measles rash: small whitish specks surrounded by a narrow red border.
Pours out in 3–4 days: head, torso, buttocks and legs.
Treatment for a child can only be prescribed by a doctor. In infectious diseases, the work of immunity is very important, and improper treatment will prevent it from overcoming viruses and bacteria.
Treatment of infectious diseases in children includes several methods – hygienic and drug. Only a doctor can prescribe medications.
Even antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs are best given only in the case of very high temperatures, pronounced poor health. If you constantly bring down the temperature, it will complicate the work of immunity.
After all, a significant increase in temperature (up to 38.5–39 ° C) is a sure sign that the body is fighting infection.
What parents must do if the child is sick is to monitor the conditions in which he lives. Viruses are sensitive to the environment and die under the action of sunlight. This means that you need to regularly (at least 2–3 times during the incubation period) carry out wet cleaning in the baby’s room and throughout the house.
Change baby bedding daily and air the room where the child is located several times a day. A small patient during ventilation in the room should not be, drafts or hypothermia can provoke a respiratory disease in a weakened organism, which the baby now completely useless.
An important factor in the speedy recovery is proper nutrition during illness. Give your child easily digestible foods (according to his age), dairy and vegetable dishes, steamed or boiled.
Do not forget about vitamins: fruit drinks and juices will help your baby to remove harmful substances from the body and strengthen the immune system.
In most cases, children recover at home, but sometimes hospital treatment is required.
The incubation period is the length of time from the moment the virus enters to the onset of the first symptoms of the disease.
If you suspect that someone surrounded by a child has caught an infection, the baby must be urgently isolated. The duration of isolation depends on the incubation period (for each disease it has its own) and the degree of infectiousness of a small patient.
Chickenpox. Incubation period: up to 14 days.
The child is contagious on the last days of the incubation period, i.e., 2–3 days before the appearance of rashes and 3–4 days after the appearance of the last vesicles.
Rubella. Incubation period: up to 21 days.
The child is contagious until the rash disappears, that is, until the 5–7th day of illness.
Mumps The incubation period: from 11 to 23 days (average 8-10). The child is infectious from the end of the incubation period (1–2 days before clinical manifestations) and during the first 3–5 days of the disease.
Not contagious after the 9th day of illness.
Scarlet fever. Incubation period: 2−7 days.
The child is contagious from the 1st day of the illness until the end of the flaking (about 6 weeks).
Measles. Incubation period: 8−14 days (rarely up to 17 days). The child is contagious in the last 2−3 days of the incubation period and up to the 4th day of the rash.
From the 5th day of the rash is considered non-infectious.
Quarantine is a system of measures taken to prevent the spread of infectious diseases from the epidemic center and the elimination of the source itself.
In accordance with the Federal Law “On the Sanitary-Epidemiological Well-Being of the Population” and the decree on sanitary-epidemiological rules in the institution where the case of an infectious disease is recorded, it is necessary to introduce quarantine and disinfection. Officially, the kindergarten should be quarantined as soon as at least one child in the group was diagnosed with an infectious disease.
But many parents are faced with the fact that this is not happening, and they learn about another epidemic from each other, and not from the medical staff of the preschool institution. Therefore, if a child goes to a nursery or kindergarten, you need to be vigilant and take care of his own health.
The health of the child depends on the care of the parents. Protect your baby from infectious diseases in several ways.
First, you need to comply with hygienic standards: the baby must live in a clean and eat right. This is important for the full development and strengthening of its immunity.
The second method is vaccination; it is used to prevent chickenpox, rubella and measles.
There are single vaccines — for fighting one disease, for example, a Russian ZhKV or French “Ruvaks” (“Pasteur-Merier”) for measles, and combined vaccines – for several diseases at once, for example “MMR-II” (“Merck Sharp Dome”, USA ) or Priorix (GlaxoSmithKline, England) against measles, rubella and parotitis. The parents should make the decision on the use of the vaccine together with the doctor, having previously discussed with him all the nuances of the health of the little patient. Do not forget: the country of origin of the vaccine also matters.
Vaccine production and treatment technologies are different in the West and in Russia: Russian pharmacology is only approaching international quality standards.
In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, a doctor who diagnoses your child (a pediatrician from a district clinic, a commercial medical center, or a private practitioner) must report the case of an infectious disease to the state sanitary-epidemiological service. But it is better to inform yourself in kindergarten or school than a child is sick.
If you have several children of different ages, one of them is sick, and the others have not yet suffered an infection, you can completely isolate them from each other and endure the incubation period or leave together for everyone to get sick at the same time. In any case, all children should not attend educational institutions until the end of the incubation period.
If there is an epidemic in kindergarten, the baby does not have to stop visiting, he still has already contacted the sick. Isolation during the incubation period is needed only for those children who were not in the garden on the days of identifying patients.