Allergy during pregnancy does not arise from nowhere. If she appeared, it means that the inclination to her has long lurked in the body of a woman. Usually, in a conversation with a doctor, it turns out that even before the pregnancy, the patient had allergy manifestations, and eventually disappeared.
But when the woman’s body is occupied by the needs of the baby, these manifestations become more noticeable or intensified.
What’s the matter? Allergy – is an abnormal, increased reaction of the immune system to the invasion of the alien agent – an allergen. Protecting, it produces antibodies that must neutralize dangerous “guests.”
Problems arise when the immune system reacts to harmless substances as if they were dangerous. Then allergic reactions are triggered, and the antibodies, called upon to protect us, become the instigators of the disorder, that is, they are responsible for the development of these reactions.
Pregnancy – the load on the body, which can wake up a predisposition to all sorts of diseases or strengthen existing ones. On the other hand, it is not necessary that the dormant tendencies will certainly wake up or be aggravated, because the hormonal changes that accompany pregnancy, all occur in different ways.
Allergic reactions manifest themselves in different ways, involving various organs and body systems in their game.
It appears during pregnancy and disappears with the birth of the baby. Unlike normal rhinitis, it does not always cause allergic swelling of the nasal mucosa in response to contact with an allergen; often runny nose associated with hormonal adjustment.
However, the usual allergic rhinitis also visits expectant mothers. It is of two types: seasonal (associated with flowering) and year-round (it is caused by home allergens).
Recent studies have shown that restrictions in the diet of expectant mothers do not affect the frequency of food allergies in their babies in the future. Another argument in favor of rejecting such diets was the fact that any restrictions on eating during pregnancy are fraught with a deficiency of important substances for the development of the child.
From the black list of “provocateurs” the only candidate for safe removal was peanuts – its presence in the diet of the future mother increases the risk of the baby becoming sensitive to this type of nuts. Breastfeeding is a better way to protect babies from allergies.
It is known that children who eat mother’s milk, less likely to face this problem. Breast milk proteins are perceived by the child as related, which cannot be said of animal proteins, on the basis of which artificial mixtures are made. In addition, there are substances in the milk that themselves protect the baby from allergies: immunoglobulins (the most influential of them are A) protect the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and the respiratory tract from food and other irritants.
In addition, breast milk creates the conditions for the development of beneficial intestinal flora and maintaining the desired ratio between it and other microbes. Atopic dermatitis in infants occurs 7 times less frequently than in artificials.
And yet, unfortunately, even breastfeeding does not guarantee 100% protection against problems.
Ekaterina Pyryeva, Dietitian
Peeling spots can appear on the hands, elbows, neck and under the knees, and small swelling anywhere. The reason may be cosmetics, washing powder, hooks, buckles, jewelry, rubber, cement, and so on.
A blistering rash can appear anywhere and will also itch badly. Hives usually cause food (eggs, fish, nuts, fruits) and air (pollen, wool, dust) allergens, drugs (penicillins, hormones, sulfonamides), insect bites and chronic inflammation (untreated tooth, tonsillitis).
He makes himself known attacks of coughing and difficulty breathing (often inhalation). It is usually caused by pollen, animal dander, house dust (it consists of a whole set of allergens, the main ones are mites), mold spores, foodstuffs, chalk dust, fiberglass, tobacco smoke, gases, cold air, exercise and even strong laughter or tears.
Its manifestations may be the most unexpected: from digestive problems (abdominal pain, vomiting, upset), rhinitis, conjunctivitis to itching and swelling of the skin. Allergies are caused by very different products and even their constituent parts (for example, a certain protein).
There are also cross-allergies: the body reacts to products that do not seem to have anything in common. Later it turns out that the proteins of which they are composed are very similar to each other (for example, cow milk and beef protein). It also happens that one type of allergy causes the appearance of others.
The most common link between allergies to fruits, vegetables and pollen (50% of those who react to apple pollen are allergic to apples). The most allergenic fruits are apples, pears, cherries, apricots, peaches, kiwi; walnuts, peanuts, chestnut, almonds are among the nuts; vegetables – spinach, tomatoes, parsley, celery.
It is not uncommon now allergic to the protein of eggs and muscles of fish (and only certain species), crabs, crayfish, shrimp.
Some food additives can also cause allergies, so try to avoid the preservatives E 220–227, E 249–252, E 210–219, antioxidant E 321, dyes E 102, E 110, E 122, E 123, E 124, E 127, E 151, flavoring B 550–553.
Fortunately, it is quite rare. Penicillin and its derivatives are among its culprits, although during pregnancy, drugs that are often prescribed to expectant mothers, such as vitamins, can cause allergies.
Their doses are increased, and the body can not cope with the increased load.
You will be told about it by the specks and swelling that will appear at the place where you applied the cream, mascara or drawing.
Any vaccines and serums can cause an allergic reaction, therefore, 6 months before pregnancy, it is better not to vaccinate.
Even a small nasal congestion reduces the supply of blood with oxygen by 1/3, which means that the baby suffers from mom’s rhinitis. If the future mother has food allergies and dermatitis, then during pregnancy the baby can also develop a predisposition to them.
And severe allergic reactions cause a spasm of smooth muscles, which covers the uterus, causing the risk of abortion.
The treatment of future mothers is a difficult task, because not all drugs are safe for them (especially in the first trimester). The doctor can prescribe one of them only if the benefits of the medicine are higher than the possible harm. A minor obstetrician-gynecologist can cope with minor allergies.
But if the situation becomes serious, he should refer the patient to the allergy center. There she will face skin tests (a tiny dose of a purified allergen applied to the skin, identifies the cause of the allergy) and a blood test (the concentration of IgE immunoglobulin will show that there is a reaction in the body).
Then the doctor will select a course of treatment, guided by 3 principles: it should bring relief to the mother, should not harm the baby and interfere with the course of pregnancy.