Doctors distinguish between seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis. In the first case, the appearance of its symptoms is “tied” to a certain time of year (spring-summer) and the disease is called hay fever, or pollinosis (from the Latin pollen – pollen).
The most common cause of trouble is the pollen of trees and grasses.
Manifestations of persistent, or year-round, allergic rhinitis do not depend on the season. Its cause is house dust, mites that are present in it, pet hair.
The diagnosis “year-round allergic rhinitis” is made if the symptoms are present at least two hours a day or for 9 months a year.
With a cold (ARVI):
- transparent discharge after 2-3 days become more dense and turbid, and by the end of the disease brighten again;
- on the 3-4th day, the child may have a fever (up to 38 ° C), weakness appears, appetite disappears;
- at the baby the throat reddens, there is a cough.
If a child has inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), then:
- runny nose lasts 1-2 weeks, with nasal discharge, thick, yellow-green;
- baby complains of headache;
- temperature stays at 37-38 ° C;
- the child eats badly and sleeps.
You can suspect allergic rhinitis if:
- body temperature is normal;
- the child eats well and sleeps;
- a runny nose with clear liquid secretions begins abruptly, lasts a long time, then intensifying, then calming down;
- the crumb weeks, and even months hardly breathes a nose, often sneezes, it is disturbed by an itch in a nose.
Allergic rhinitis in infants is very rare. To cause allergies, the body must at least once collide with the allergen and develop a hypersensitivity to it.
Only in this case, sensitization of the organism occurs and, upon repeated meeting with the allergen, an allergic reaction develops. Since it usually takes years for such sensitization, an allergic rhinitis is characteristic of already grown up children.
In infants, allergic rhinitis simply does not have time for development.
This does not mean that the body of the infant cannot react incorrectly to any substances. But in this case, the crumbs of allergic dermatitis will manifest itself: not the nasal mucosa, but the whole organism will react to allergens.
And it is necessary to treat allergic rhinitis in infants only under the condition that the diagnosis was made by a qualified doctor.
Allergic rhinitis in infants occurs with the same symptoms as older children. Symptoms:
- copious, clear, liquid nasal discharge;
- watery eyes;
- itching in the nose and eyes;
- the child constantly sneezes, rubs his nose and eyes.
According to Komarovsky, allergic rhinitis is advisable to be treated with medication only with a precisely defined allergen. He opposes the use of common anti-inflammatory drugs, as he believes that they suppress the immune system.
So the most effective treatment will be the removal of the allergen, in other words, the complete exclusion of contact with the child.
And for this, the child must be examined by an allergist-immunologist. It includes a sample or blood test for the determination of E – IgE specific allergen specific immunoglobulins.
When carrying out skin tests, scratches are applied to the skin of the child, on which a few drops of the pre-prepared allergen are dripped.
In any case, the doctor will prescribe antihistamines to relieve symptoms and prevent them from appearing in the future. Depending on the results of the examination, he will also tell you how to eliminate contact with the allergen.
From the age of 5, if there are no contraindications and the symptoms of allergic rhinitis occur annually in the same season, allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is performed. From the name it is already clear that allergies can be treated with an allergen that causes the corresponding symptoms.
Drugs containing “provocateurs” reactions are introduced into the body in gradually increasing concentrations, and thus they are taught to respond correctly to such stimuli.
Folk remedies for treating allergic rhinitis are fairly well known. These are infusions and decoctions of both individual herbs, and collections of various herbs, mumiyo, activated carbon, dandelion juice, birch tar and eggshell are also used.
As practice shows, these funds only worsen the condition of the child. First of all, because the decoction or infusion of herbal remedies may also become a provocateur of an allergic reaction and strengthen it. Therefore, it is better not to lose precious time, increasing the risk of complications, and immediately seek advice from an allergist-immunologist.