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ABC of vaccinations

ABC of vaccinations

Children with allergies must be vaccinated, and the fact is not only that, like other children, they are prone to dangerous infections. These diseases also exacerbate allergies.

Concerns about the procedure are likely to be caused by certain types of vaccines, such as measles. The causative agent of this disease, the virus, is grown on chicken and quail eggs, which means that it cannot be administered to babies who are allergic to this protein. The doctor will help you find a safe little drug and find a good time for vaccination.

For example, he will certainly offer to postpone it at the time of exacerbation of the disease.

This vaccination is very important for babies, because tuberculosis still poses a danger to both young and old. For the first time it is made to children still in the hospital, and then before going to school.

Before repeating the vaccination, the doctor should check whether the child has developed immunity against the disease. For this, he will assign a skin test to him – the Mantoux reaction. Under the skin, a drug is injected that contains some tuberculin, a component of the microbe.

If the test turns out to be positive, then the baby already has immunity against tuberculosis, and if it is negative, the vaccine is repeated again.

With the emergence of a new vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae b, which causes meningitis, this disease is less common. Babies are vaccinated against it from 2 months.

In Russia, this vaccination calendar is not provided, but recommended by the Ministry of Health, that is, parents can make it to the baby, for example by combining with the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio.

In Russia, this vaccine is given to babies if necessary, for example, if you go on a trip

If the mother of a newborn is a carrier of the hepatitis B virus, there is a risk that during birth the baby will become infected with this disease. To avoid this, it is vaccinated on the first day of life, and then at the age of 1 and 2 months.

Fortunately, such cases are rare. The standard vaccination schedule prescribes vaccinating children against hepatitis three times: in the first 12 hours of life, at 1 and 6 months.

Infants are vaccinated against influenza with inactivated vaccines starting at 6 months.

Diphtheria outbreaks still occur, so babies continue to vaccinate against this disease, first at the age of 3, 4, 5 and 18 months.

  • Against tuberculosis (BCG) Against hepatitis (first vaccination) 1 month
  • Against hepatitis (second vaccination) 3 months
  • Against polio (first vaccination) Against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus (DPT) (first vaccination) 4 months
  • Against poliomyelitis (second vaccination) Against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus (DPT) (second vaccination) 5 months
  • Against poliomyelitis (third vaccination) Against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus (DPT) (third vaccination) 6 months
  • Against hepatitis (third vaccination) 12 months
  • Against measles, rubella, parotitis 18 months
  • Against poliomyelitis (fourth vaccination) Against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus (DPT) (fourth vaccination) 20 months
  • Against poliomyelitis (fifth vaccine)

When an infectious agent enters the human body, our immune system tries to recognize a “stranger” and produces antibodies that will protect the body when we meet again with the enemy. Made on the basis of the infectious agents themselves (toxins, bacteria, killed or weakened viruses), the vaccines introduced into the body provoke the desired response of the immune system.

A healthy newborn has a full-fledged protective mechanism, but he has no experience of meeting with the infection yet. Despite this, in the first six months of his life, the baby is reliably protected from many serious diseases by the antibodies that he receives from his mother with breast milk.

After six months, this support subsides and the risk of getting sick for the child increases, especially if he eats artificial formulas.

All drugs are divided into three groups: live, when the pathogen, which is included in their composition, is slightly weakened (for example, the vaccine against tuberculosis); inactivated, where it is killed (flu vaccine) and “artificial” – in them, with the help of genetic engineering, a piece of the virus was designed (such are the new generation of influenza vaccines).

The vaccination against this disease is done on babies from 3 months, and then repeated at 4 and 5 months. For these purposes, use the combined drug, which, in addition to whooping cough, also includes a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and polio.

In order not to give the baby several injections, experts combine several vaccines in one syringe. There is now a 4- and 5-component vaccine against Haemophilus, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio.

This vaccination is given to babies (most often with the mumps and rubella vaccine) at the age of 12–15 months (and sometimes earlier, from 9 months, if the child, for whatever reason, needs to be in a team).

For children, this disease is not dangerous, the problem is that they can face it when they grow up. Rubella vaccine is administered with the anti-measles and mumps drug from 1 year onwards.

There are vaccines against two types of microbe – A and C. These vaccinations are done if necessary, for example, if in a kindergarten where the baby goes, someone gets sick.

  • Toddlers are very vulnerable, which means they need protection, especially when it comes to diseases that can lead to the most serious consequences.
  • Vaccinations that our children are doing now are not at all what they did to us! Vaccinology (the science of vaccinations) does not stand still and over the past 20 years has achieved a lot. Most of the vaccines we know from childhood have now become softer – they were spared from those components that can cause undesirable reactions.
  • The modern vaccine schedule is much broader than before, and combining different vaccines into one simplifies the procedure. And the risk of adverse reactions does not increase!
  • At the disposal of doctors, new vaccines appear that help protect babies from serious diseases, which they have not been able to cope with before. For example, a vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type B, the causative agent of a serious illness, was recently invented.

Modern vaccines almost do not cause babies adverse reactions. A rise in temperature and small rashes that appear, for example, after the administration of live vaccines with a weakened measles pathogen, rubella, or a small swelling that provokes a mumps vaccine is a normal reaction of the baby’s organism to the invasion of hostile germs.

All these manifestations have nothing to do with complications, and they need not be feared.

There are not so many of them, and they fall into two categories: absolute, when a baby has serious health problems and the introduction of a vaccine can complicate his condition (as is the case with a tendency to seizures), and relative, that is, temporary (this includes aggravation allergies, colds, and so on). Compared with the risk of getting sick, for example, hepatitis, these last ones are not such a serious problem. Before you vaccinate your baby, the doctor carefully examines the condition of the little patient and selects the appropriate vaccine.

For example, live vaccines with a weakened pathogen (for example, against measles, mumps, rubella, polio) are usually not prescribed if the child is sick and has a severely reduced immunity (this is a serious congenital immunodeficiency disease). In this case, the doctor prescribes him a “killed” or artificial vaccine.

As soon as you realize that you missed the vaccination, contact your pediatrician, who is observing your baby. If the baby has a fever on the day scheduled for the procedure or has a runny nose, notify the doctor and he will decide whether to do it now.

Do not worry, you do not have to start all over again: the program can be continued or slightly changed.

Before the vaccine became available to the doctors, the number of cases was estimated at several thousand a year. A mumps vaccination is given along with a measles and rubella vaccine starting at 1 year old.

This disease is caused by a virus that infects the nervous system. Despite the fact that polio has become a rarity, you need to be alert: in some areas it is still found.

The purpose of the vaccine is to create a natural defense against the disease by imitating it. For this, together with the vaccine, a weakened pathogen is injected into the baby’s body. In response to an invasion, its immune system produces defensive reactions and not only defeats this artificial disease, but also preserves its memory.

After the first injection of the vaccine, defensive reactions develop slowly, and their memory is not stored for long. A new meeting with the pathogen gives a much faster reaction, and information about this meeting is stored for several years.

That is why, in order to create a strong protective reaction, you need to introduce a vaccine several times. At the same time, there are drugs that give this result immediately, as in the case of the vaccine against measles and mumps.

The champion by duration is a vaccine against tetanus, it guarantees us protection for 20 years.

We are talking about vaccinations, which are not considered mandatory. But this does not mean that they can not do.

They are called recommended because the state is not able to pay them and parents must do this.

The doctor makes the baby several vaccinations at a time, which was made possible by the emergence of combination vaccines.

A series of vaccinations, which starts at the age of 3 months, reliably protects children from this dangerous disease, which is not the case with adults, because many of us miss the next vaccination after eighteen years.

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