Assertion number 1: it is important to talk with the baby before birth.
Right! Today already recognized fact: the child is able to recognize the voice of the mother long before his birth.
Scientists even managed to prove that babies before birth willingly listen to fairy tales! In one study, babies learned a fairy tale that mothers read to them before birth. When they heard a familiar tale, their heart rate slowed down.
It can be said that the embryo loves what it is familiar with – it calms him down. However, you should not actively use the prenatal period to achieve accelerated development of the baby.
Some parents show too much zeal, reading complex scientific non-fiction literature, including classical music and holding headphones in my mother’s abdomen … So far no research has shown that children who were singing arias from operas or reading an encyclopedia before birth turned out to be more developed. And putting the headphones on the mother’s belly, we risk to bring down the natural rhythm of the child’s sleep.
Assertion number 2: emotional communication with mom in the first months of life is very important for the development of speech.
Right! The baby is ready for contact, barely born.
Children have an innate ability to respond to facial expressions of people – anyone who has the opportunity to observe a newborn baby can be sure of this. Kids who are just a few hours or days old already copy the behavior of adults. Go to the child, lean over him and stick out your tongue, shake your head or wink – and you will see what he does.
Even when you stop this imitation, the baby will try to continue it, repeating the movements that you have just exchanged. You will see that your newborn can do much more than just eat and sleep.
He enters into communication and learns from you from the first days of his life. Studies show that babies from birth can discern our emotions and even imitate the expressions of our faces. In one experiment, babies who were just 36 hours old were shown different faces.
After reviewing the video, experts on the movements of the forehead, eyes and mouth of newborns were able to say what expressions the kids imitate. Children clearly preferred positive emotions!
Assertion number 3: premature babies learn speech much later than their peers.
True and false. Parents often make the mistake of comparing the development of a child born for up to 37 weeks to the development of peers born on time. Up to two years for premature babies, the rule applies: you must subtract the age of prematurity.
That is, in two years the child’s development will correspond to one year and 10 months. There are a lot of different methods, but the main principle: your baby needs even more attention, time, communication and care than a child who has passed the entire gestational period.
If it seems to you that your child is lagging behind in development, do not try to solve the problem yourself: expert advice: a neurologist, a speech therapist, a child psychologist will not be superfluous. In this case, there are cases when children born a few weeks ahead of time are not inferior in development to other babies.
Statement # 4: All children start talking at the same time.
Wrong! The development of speech goes in different ways, it is a very individual process. Some children form phrasal speech for a long time, but by the age of two they master the pronunciation of all the sounds of their native language.
Other babies start saying long phrases early, but do not pronounce many sounds. Some kids say a lot and with pleasure, but use only a few syllables, and often only the mother can understand what they said. Much depends on the health of the child, his gender, temperament, as well as on how the parents communicate with the child, how much they do and play with him.
For example, children with well-developed motor skills begin to speak earlier and learn speech skills more quickly. Children who, after a year or a year and a half, their parents continue to speak in a “special” infant language, which sometimes seems charming to adults, may have difficulty mastering the language.
In general, it is believed that a child who does not have problems with hearing and speech perception, with whom adults have sufficient contact, begins to speak by 14–18 months. You should not constantly examine the child and compare it with other children, especially with siblings.
But if at 2 years your baby does not speak at all, it is necessary to consult a specialist.
Assertion number 5: lisping with a child after two years leads to difficulties in mastering speech.
Right! Syusyukaya, you simplify words and phrases, deliberately distort them. In general, the distortion of words and the excessive use of diminutive forms of words prevents the full development of speech.
In the year your child is already quite ready to master the “adult” speech. It is not a great thing if a child calls a cat “kitty”, over time he will get used to calling her correctly if he hears the correct, competent speech at home.
Therefore, be sure to pay attention to what and how you say.
Assertion number 6: if the child correctly repeats the words, he will have no difficulty with speech.
Wrong! If a baby repeats words like a parrot, it can be both the age norm and a signal of problems in the future.
The repetition of words or phrases – echolalia – up to three years often occurs when a child learns to speak and imitates someone else’s speech. In older adults, this symptom requires referral to a specialist.
Assertion number 7: stuttering is just a repetition of sounds (“pi-pi-pie”).
Wrong! When stuttering occurs involuntary contraction of the speech muscles, in which speech is blocked. The child has physical stress, there are grimaces or tics, breathing is interrupted.
This does not happen with a simple repetition of the first sounds of the word. When stuttering in the organs of the articulatory apparatus, convulsions occur, which lead to a disturbance of the smoothness of speech. Sometimes this is due to the lack of preparedness of speech organs (larynx, vocal cords, lower palate, tongue) to speech.
Strong psycho-emotional shocks cause stuttering in approximately 15% of cases. Stuttering creates difficulties in communication, but, unlike dyslexia, it does not cause problems in learning, does not lead to difficulties in mastering writing and reading. Many stuttering children study well at school.
In the treatment of stuttering, the child learns to speak as you exhale, slowly and calmly. Parents also need to switch to a slower rate of speech when talking with a child, do not rush, do not finish phrases for him, learn to understand him.
To do this, you need to allocate enough time for practicing and communicating, master breathing exercises, learn to control yourself. At the same time, constant monitoring of a speech therapist is necessary.
Assertion number 8: singing children’s songs and repeating counting points is useful for learning speech.
Right! It expands vocabulary, develops memory and imagination, encourages the child to express his thoughts and emotions, teaches the creative handling of the word – to rhyme, to make phrases, to invent associations.
Repeated repetition of primitive actions is very useful for development: it is both a fascinating game and training. Reading, poteshki, tongue twisters are indispensable for the development of memory, attention, imagination, improvement of pronunciation (that is why speech therapists love them so much). In addition, any rhyme or song that appeals to a child helps to make learning a language a pleasant and fun experience.
And the reader is also a unique genre: it is at the same time a short funny story, a game, a riddle and just a pleasant combination of sounds that you want to repeat again and again. The kids generally fascinate rhyme and rhythm, and in chanting the counting, there is also the pleasure of anticipating a spectacular ending.
If you want to diversify the repertoire of your baby – try playing rhymes: he will most likely be delighted.
Statement number 9: dyslexia is a violation of sound pronunciation.
Wrong! Dyslexia is a selective violation of the ability to master reading skills.
As a rule, the violation is associated with the problems of making words from syllables (syllables), reading in whole words, fluent reading. Children read slowly, by letters or syllables, try to guess the words, and not read them, rearrange letters and syllables in places.
Dyslexia can be detected before school, when a child begins to learn to read and write and he has specific difficulties: for example, he cannot remember how to sign his name correctly under a picture or repeats the same mistakes when reading a plain text.
Statement number 10: a child who speaks poorly will have communication problems.
Right! Socialization without language is impossible! Children react sharply enough to the imperfection of the peer pronunciation, and this can cause isolation and even persecution of the child already in the older group of the kindergarten.
A child who is socially or emotionally isolated closes in on himself, this often leads to behavioral problems. That is why early consultations with a speech therapist can avoid difficulties in communicating with peers in the future.
The sooner hearing problems are identified, the less impact they will have on speech development.