If the test for ovulation, newborn screening, double and triple tests, computed tomography have become firmly established in our everyday life and have become routine, such studies as deciphering the genome of a specific person and isolating the risk of severe hereditary diseases from a pregnant woman’s blood , today only available units. In the same category of medical rarities, 3D and 4D ultrasounds can be recorded.
But positron emission tomography, which has recently appeared in the open spaces of Russia, has already entered into the protocols of treatment of some very serious illnesses as a compulsory research, and in the direction of the relevant specialist it can be done according to the MHI policy.
It will help to establish the most favorable time for conceiving a baby. Arranged on the same principle as the pregnancy test, but responds to another hormone – luteinizing (LH).
When its production reaches a peak, within 1–2 days the follicle ruptures (ovulation) and the egg cell, ready for fertilization, rushes towards spermatozoa. The home test for ovulation determines the moment when LH production increases dramatically, which means that if a woman wants to become a mother, there is no time to lose.
Modern tests for ovulation are of several types. However, the results are always determined by the only way: negative (concentration of LH has not yet reached a peak), if the second bar does not appear or is pale, positive – when the second bar appears darker than the first or of the same color.
- The thin test strips impregnated with special structure which immerse in urine.
- Test plates are plastic cases with a window. They or substitute a stream of urine, or urine drip on them.
- Reusable – portable device with a set of test strips. The strips are lowered into the urine, then inserted into the device to know the result.
- Electronic. React to saliva. We’ll have to put it under the microscope, examine the pattern and decipher it, referring to the instructions. Doctors are quite skeptical about the results obtained with this test.
In children, red throat is a symptom of any viral infection, therefore, seeing a reddened throat, it is impossible to say with confidence that a child has a bacterial tonsillitis and antibiotics should be taken. Most often, bacterial sore throat causes Streptococcus Group A, which can cause serious purulent complications, and therefore it is important to dispel all doubts as soon as possible.
The gold standard for diagnosis is the taking of a smear from the posterior pharyngeal and tonsils. Pharmacies now sell streptotesta, which allow you to make a diagnosis in 5-10 minutes, without departing from the bed of the patient.
A swab is taken with a special swab, then the swab is placed in a test tube with a special reagent. After a few minutes, the swab is removed from the tube, and the test strip is lowered into the tube.
If after 5 minutes the color has changed – it is streptococcus. If not, look for another reason.
Accurately diagnosing the flu is difficult even in a hospital, since the virus is “recognized” only in very severe cases. This requires a blood test for antibodies to viruses.
However, now the diagnosis can be confirmed at home with the help of special test strips. They work on the same principle as the previous tests. With the help of the applicator with a spongy tip, the doctor takes a smear from the child’s nose and lowers it into a special fluid.
The answer is ready in a maximum of 5 minutes. One bar says that there is no flu, two confirm suspicions.
Depending on where the second strip is located, you can immediately determine the type of influenza – A, B, or the pandemic H1N1 virus (swine).
Since the end of the last century, the achievements of several scientific fields have entered medical practice, primarily medical genetics and pathophysiology – the science of the mechanisms of work and the interaction of various organs and systems in both unborn babies and newborns, older children and adults. For example, a modern examination of a future mother can no longer be imagined without a double and triple test — a blood test that is part of prenatal diagnosis — a set of diagnostic procedures that help identify serious problems in the development of a future child.
The prenatal diagnosis also includes the isolation of the fetal DNA of the future baby from the mother’s blood. However, due to its high cost, this method is currently available only to a few.
The same can be said about the decoding of the genome of a particular person. But the screening of newborns in Russian maternity hospitals became a mandatory procedure at the very beginning of this century.
At 11-13 weeks of pregnancy determine the blood levels of hormones that are produced by the placenta: plasma protein, associated with pregnancy, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Deviations from the norm may indicate a high risk of having a baby with Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau.
At the 16–20th week of carrying a baby in the blood, they check the level of three hormones — alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hCG, and free estriol. Based on its results, doctors calculate the risk of not only chromosomal trisomy (the presence of an additional third chromosome in the cell), but also a neural tube defect.
Methods of prenatal diagnosis are constantly being improved. Not so long ago, American scientists made a real breakthrough: they were the first to learn to isolate the free (fetal) DNA of a future baby from the blood of a pregnant woman.
This method allows you to identify chromosomal abnormalities, Rh factor and sex of the child from 7 weeks of gestation. As in previous tests, a woman’s venous blood is examined. The results obtained in this way and the results of invasive methods are 100% identical.
Doctors hope that with time this technology will be able to replace both double and triple tests, and invasive methods of prenatal diagnosis.
In Russia, the method was introduced in 2012, but so far only in individual commercial clinics, since its implementation requires very expensive equipment and reagents, due to which the cost of research is affordable for only a few families.
Designed to exclude the five most serious and common hereditary diseases. We are talking about phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, adrenogenital syndrome and cystic fibrosis.
All newborns are examined, because these illnesses can appear in perfectly healthy families.
For screening newborns take a few drops of blood from the heel. Full-term babies are tested on the 4th day of life, premature – on the 7th.
To eliminate the error, the test is repeated on the 14th day. After 10 days, the answer from the laboratory is sent to the children’s clinic at the place of residence. If deviations from the norm are found, parents are called (or sent a notice by mail) and offered to undergo a follow-up study in a medical genetic consultation from the 18th to the 21st day of the child’s life.
If after 2 weeks no one called, then everything is in order. When suspicions are confirmed, the child is sent to narrow specialists and prescribed treatment so that the baby will be able to develop normally.
In 2003, scientists have deciphered the human genome, that is, they received information about the location of all the genes that determine our development. Since then, in some countries, the search for genes causing a hereditary predisposition to malignant tumors has become a common practice.
But in Russia, such analyzes are still very rare.
With this study, however, predisposition is determined not only to tumors, but also to mental illness, the general “genetic history” of a person who wants to know for sure what diseases he may have, as well as the cause of unclear symptoms when it is impossible to diagnose others by. The cost of DNA analysis can reach hundreds of thousands of rubles, if ordered a full genetic examination. The result has to wait an average of 3-4 weeks.
Venous blood is usually taken for research, but hair, saliva, nails, earwax can also serve as material for it – the main thing is that the biomaterial is sufficient for analysis.
Conventional ultrasound has been used in the diagnosis of diseases for more than half a century, but its 3D and 4D counterparts entered medical practice about 15 years ago. If you usually get a black-and-white image with the help of the device in two planes, then 3D makes the picture three-dimensional, and 4D helps to see the organ or the future baby in motion.
Due to the fact that three-dimensional ultrasound allows us to estimate the volume and shape, it is used in surgery, for example, in preparation for endoscopic operations, in gynecology – to assess the condition of the uterus and ovaries. The resulting three-dimensional models make it possible to determine the features – where is the focus of inflammation, the degree of vascular changes.
This method is not inferior in accuracy to invasive research and, unlike the latter, is safer.
One of the modern and informative methods for diagnosing the state of internal organs. It is carried out with the help of a tomograph – a device that emits X-rays, which affect the organ under study from different angles. Rays fall on supersensitive sensors and transmit the received information in the form of pictures.
After processing, three-dimensional images are obtained, which allows the doctor to thoroughly examine the “problem” organ. This method allows you to explore even soft tissues that are not amenable to radiography.
Such a survey also allows you to monitor the results of surgical treatment. With it, you can determine the stage of development of the disease and develop a treatment plan.
Experts call this research method the most significant breakthrough of recent years. It is used in oncology, neurology and cardiology. PET provides an opportunity to see changes in metabolic processes in the human body at the cellular level.
Due to this, it is possible to determine the characteristics of the lesion, its boundaries, to make a forecast of the development of the disease. Such a study is usually used for a very detailed study, when the results of other methods do not give a complete picture of the disease.
PET is carried out on an outpatient basis, scanning lasts no more than an hour. But, given the preparatory stage and the time after the procedure, the patient in the diagnostic center will have to spend about six hours. During scanning, the device produces a weak noise – this is the only thing that can disturb a person.
Data decryption usually takes several days. The conclusion is prepared by two specialists at once – a specialist in nuclear physics and a radiologist.