1. Incorrect breast attachment
The main rule: when a baby sucks, it must seize with its mouth not only the nipple, but also part of the areola. This is important for the mother: due to the large “coverage area”, a lot of nerve impulses come to the woman’s brain from the skin surface, and milk production increases, and there are no cracks on the nipples.
This is no less important for the child: with such a capture, it is easier for him to suck out the milk.
Make yourself comfortable: with a sore neck, lower back and arms, the process is unlikely to be pleasant. And the baby in an uncomfortable position will behave restlessly. Take a position in which you could long watch an interesting movie – sit down, reclining or lying down.
If possible, strip the baby, covering it with a blanket for warmth, and expose your belly and chest – skin-to-skin contact is very important for lactation, as it causes a sharp surge of hormones. Lay the child exactly so that his torso and head are in the same plane, the tummy is pressed against your stomach, and the head is not tilted back.
To make it easier for the baby to hold the breast in the mouth, the mother should support the baby. Hold the chest with your palm below, creating a cup, like with a thumb, from above, but not too close to the nipple. Push the baby to the chest so that his nose (not his mouth!) Looked at the nipple.
Put your hand under the child’s head and wait until he opens his mouth wide. If the baby slumbers or thinks, run a finger or a nipple on his lips.
As soon as the baby opens his mouth wide, push his head to his chest, but do not lean towards him. In this position, the nipple, as if sliding off the upper lip and palate, will be deep in the baby’s mouth.
If the nipple is located at the level of the baby’s mouth, it will only capture the nipple area.
If you did everything right, the baby will push the tongue, grab the nipple and about 2/3 of the areola. In this position, the areola and nipple fill almost the entire mouth of the baby, and crumbs of the tongue massage the breast.
While the baby sucks, his lower lip will be twisted, his cheeks will be rounded, his chin will be pressed against his breast, and you will hear how he swallows the milk.
After some time, when mother and baby adapt and get used to each other, the woman will choose the most comfortable position for herself and for the child. There are four such positions in total.
Relaxed feeding. A position that does not require any effort from a woman is called biological or relaxed feeding.
You just need to put the crumb down face on the chest of the reclining mother. The child will orient himself, find the nipple and seize it in the most convenient way for him and in exactly the way it should be done.
Cradle. In the upper part of the body, the baby lies on her mother’s hand, under the breast from which they will feed him. His head rests on the elbow, and the back rests flat on his mother’s forearm.
The child should cling to his chest with his face and shoulders, and to the stomach – his own tummy, and not sideways.
From under the arm. The baby is lying on a large pillow on the side of the mother, with her legs toward the back of the sofa or chair. His head looks out from under the arm of his mother.
In this case, the crumb lies on its side, on the pillow, and my mother supports him with his hand just below the back of the head. Such a situation makes it easier for a child to suck milk.
Lying down. Baby is next to my mother. Mom is lying on the mattress shoulder, between her shoulder and ear is the edge of the pillow. Having embraced the baby, the woman presses his tummy to herself, and arranges the head on the crook of the elbow.
With her free hand, she helps the baby to take the breast correctly.
2. Mom thinks the baby doesn’t have enough milk
Often, inexperienced parents cannot understand whether a baby is fed up, and just in case they begin to feed him with an artificial mixture. But as soon as an artificial formula appears in the diet of the crumbs, breastfeeding in most cases disappears, because it is much easier to suck from a bottle and the child refuses to take the breast.
To prevent this from happening, observe the behavior of the child. A well-fed baby stops sucking and quietly falls asleep at mom’s arms, even if his meal was rather short.
When a baby grabs milk, it not only sleeps soundly, but also gains at least 100-125 grams of weight per week, without delay it makes both the “small” and the “big” toilet (the first – at least 6 times a day, the second – 1 to 8 times).
Signs of “malnutrition”: the child is worried and crying even after feeding, every now and then looking for my mother’s nipple, and after sucking all the milk, she continues to greedily grab an already empty breast. He does not sleep well, often screaming, he has scanty loose stools.
Determining whether the baby has enough milk will help weighing. During the week at the same time, weigh the infant before and after feeding.
Compare the difference between these two numbers with the amount of portion set by your local pediatrician. Doctors calculate portions based on the weight and state of health of the child.
For example, a healthy baby at the age of 1 month, weighing 4 kg, knocks on average 700 g of milk. If mother feeds him every 3-4 hours, a single portion will be approximately 100 g.
3. When mastitis, the mother completely refuses breastfeeding and rarely decant
Mastitis – inflammation of the breast tissue. At the same time, one or several small red spots are formed on the chest, hot and painful to the touch, a sore pain appears inside and the body temperature rises. If a seal is not felt deep in the gland, breast feeding can be continued by placing the baby on a healthy breast.
Milk from a sick breast should be decanted in this case, but the baby should not be given it, since it may be infected with bacteria. At this stage of mastitis, which is called serous, cool dry compresses help (they are made in between feedings.
Mom prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics that are compatible with breastfeeding.
If the painful induration is palpable, then the mastitis has passed into the purulent stage. In this case, breastfeeding is temporarily stopped, because bacteria can at any moment get from a sick breast to a healthy one.
Mom is transferred to the artificial mixture until the baby is completely cured. Treatment of mastitis at this stage is also reduced to antibacterial therapy, although surgical intervention may sometimes be required.
In order to further maintain lactation, it is necessary to continue to express to the rhythm of feeding, that is, every 2−3 hours. We can speak of complete recovery only when the results of bacterial seeding of milk are satisfactory.
4. Refusal to breastfeed when a child has digestive disorders and increased gas formation.
With these symptoms, many doctors immediately give my mother a referral for bacterial culture of breast milk to check the level of staphylococci. The norm is the presence in the sample of no more than 250 colonies of these microorganisms.
However, even if the analysis confirmed the presence of only a few dozen, most doctors diagnose the child with “functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract” or “dysbacteriosis” and prescribe antibiotics or bacteriophages to him and his mother, and in some cases recommend that they stop breastfeeding until complete recovery. Such measures are often meaningless, because epidermal and Staphylococcus aureus are typical representatives of the skin microflora, and a certain amount in milk is a variant of the norm according to all international standards. For this reason, foreign doctors do not conduct a microbiological study of breast milk at all.
Although one case, when this study is justified, still exists: an analysis of the sterility of breast milk is necessary if the baby has symptoms of enterocolitis (frequent stools with blood and mucus, severe abdominal pain).
If a child has mild digestive disorders (constipation, diarrhea, or regurgitation), the mother first needs to reconsider her diet. It is necessary to analyze which foods your child develops in these symptoms.
The reaction is very individual, but the conclusion is the same: these dishes should be excluded from the diet. The black list also includes products containing yeast (fresh pastries), whole cow’s milk, soft drinks, kvass, sharp and processed cheeses, nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, smoked meat and sausages, lard, any canned food, coffee, grapes, pickles and spices, mayonnaise, ketchup, peas, beans, radish, radishes, onions, garlic, cucumbers, pickled and fresh white cabbage, melons, watermelons, exotic tropical fruits.
All these products can provoke increased flatulence in the baby’s tummy.
5. Mom puts the child to the other breast, not waiting for him to completely suck the milk from the first breast.
It must be remembered that the composition of milk is heterogeneous. First, the baby sucks the so-called “front” milk.
It is liquid and is 90% water, so first of all it does not satisfy hunger, but thirst. Only after sucking the “front” milk, the baby begins to get “back”, rich in fats, then gradually the feeling of fullness comes.
But the second portion is slower, and the child has to put more effort, so the whims arise often. Inexperienced mothers immediately apply the crumb to the other breast. Having sucked in the “front” milk again, the baby falls asleep, without having reached the “back” one.
After some time, he awakens, asks for food, but again receives only the “front” portion. In fact, it is necessary to act differently: just hold the crumbs at the breast a little longer.
Then he will suck out both the front and the back portion. If one breast is not enough for him, you can give the second one.
When the baby asks for food again, it should be applied to the breast from which he finished sucking the last time.
6. Refusal of breastfeeding with mom’s cold
It is necessary to interrupt breastfeeding only in rare and rather serious cases (such as typhoid fever, dysentery, breast abscess, etc.), and seasonal ailments like rhinitis, sore throat or “intestinal flu” do not apply to them. Do not worry about infecting your baby: breast milk contains a large amount of antibodies that protect it from infections.
Another thing is the situation when a young mother necessarily needs medicine. It cannot do without the help of a doctor (your attending physician or pediatrician supervising the baby), who will select drugs that are compatible with lactation, or decide that she will have to be interrupted for a while.
Today, there are enough products compatible with breastfeeding – there are even antibiotics among them, so it is necessary to deprive children of important nutrition only in special cases.
7. Using pacifiers or pacifiers
These breast simulators are extremely harmful devices, as they reduce the stimulation and emptying of the breast; instead of sucking the breast, the baby sucks the nipple. In addition, such devices spoil the correct grip of the breast, because when they suck, they do not work at all the muscles that suck mom’s breasts. As a result, the outflow of milk worsens, it stagnates, lactostasis is formed.
In this case, the baby “moves down” on the nipple and injures him, causing cracks. In addition, there is no milk in the nipple, since the main accumulation of milk occurs in the areola zone, where the ducts expand and merge.
8. Feeding in the same pose.
This monotony does not allow evenly empty all lobes of the breast. When feeding a baby in the same position (usually a classic “cradle” pose or lying on its side), the child empties the lower and near-ovary lobes where his chins look. And the upper and axillary lobes usually remain filled with milk.
In these places, with constant feeding in one position, most often there is stagnation. Therefore, it is necessary during the feeding during the day to change the posture and chest.
9. Rare feedings
In the first month, the babies sleep a lot, sometimes they fall asleep, even without having time to fully fill themselves, so it is important to organize frequent attachments and sleep at the breast. If you feel that the chest is poured heavily, then you need to make the application more frequent, slightly wringing the baby (scratching the heel, stroking the cheek) and offering him the breast.
The amount of milk that arrived during the day, but was not spent by the baby, on the basis of feedback, is “subtracted” on the next day, and the breast begins to produce less milk.
But the reverse process can occur: at the expense of long breaks, the breast will begin to produce a lot of milk, it will stagnate in the ducts, squeeze the walls of the milky ducts and cause stagnation. In addition, if the mother as a “treatment” tides will practice limiting fluid, milk will be condensed and milk spatters will form from fat droplets.
They clog the ducts and worsen the flow of milk. The most effective way to prevent such events is free feeding – at the request of the baby and the demands of moms.
10. Additional breast pumping on demand.
Best of all, the volume of milk in the breast is regulated by the baby itself, sucking out the amount of milk it needs. With the mode of free, at the request of the baby, feeding additional expressing of the breast is not necessary.
When expressing breast “dry”, signals are sent to the brain about enhanced milk production, it rushes so much that the child does not physically have time to eat it all. Milk stagnates in the chest, squeezing the lactiferous ducts, and causes swelling and soreness of the tissues – breast engorgement is formed. It is difficult for the baby to suck such a breast: the milky ducts are squeezed, the milk separates poorly, and the mother experiences pain and stress.
In rare cases, when feeding is temporarily impossible (you are on the street, the baby is asleep and does not want to take the breast), it is possible to slightly move the breast – but only until relief.