maintenance, care, compatibility
A beautiful aquarium in the house brings joy to our lives during the contemplation of fish and perfectly affects the psychological component. Each novice aquarist unwittingly wonders where to start, to get everything right for the aquarium, run it right the first time and prevent the fish from dying.
Before acquiring a tank for fish, it is necessary to carefully consider its design and shape so that it fits into the interior of the room as naturally as possible, does not interfere with its basic purpose and is located in a place convenient for viewing.
By design, aquariums are on a stand, on legs, suspended, angled, frame and frameless. In form, they are represented by more than a wide choice, the main of which are:
- spherical (round);
- cubic (square);
- parallelepipedal (rectangular);
- parallelepipedal with convex viewing glass (panoramic);
- prismoidal (with a regular polygon of the bottom, as a rule, high, for a floor installation);
- pyromidoidal (triangular, for closed-type aquariums).
The main parameters for choosing a tank for keeping fish in a novice aquarist are the following factors:
- correct installation, which should allow various manipulations during operation (removal or installation of the cover and backlight, feeding fish, planting plants, cleaning the filter, bottom siphon, etc.);
- the exclusion of direct sunlight on its surface;
- the number and size of the aquarium population (the required volume of the aquarium depends on this. If there is no certainty for specific fish, then take at least 1 liter of water per 1 cm of adult fish, i.e. if you want to contain 10 fish 8 cm long, you need an aquarium more than 80 liters, it will avoid overcrowding and allow it to develop well and feel comfortable for its inhabitants).
Together with the aquarium offer covers with integrated lighting and cabinets for them. If there is no specific place to install the aquarium, then you can use this offer. A lid for a backlit aquarium will prevent many species of fish from jumping out, reduce evaporation of water into the atmosphere of the room, and also provide artificial lighting for the plant and allow you to control the length of the day in a pond.
The cabinet is suitable for storing all sorts of accessories (a net, tubes, suckers, feeders, literature, etc.), feed and other things related to the aquarium.
There is a standard set of equipment for aquariums:
- Illumination (the choice of lamp power and the duration of illumination during the day depends on the inhabitants and plants);
- water heater (it is better to choose with automatic temperature control);
- Aerator and water filter can be both combined and separate (power depends on the volume of the aquarium).
The selection of soil and scenery depends on the inhabitants, but small fractional rounded gravel without sharp edges is considered universal. The thickness of the soil at the bottom should be from 5 to 7 cm, this will allow plants to root well and grow.
You can use locks, sunken ships, etc. to decorate and create a unique interior.
Before releasing beautiful fish in the aquarium, it takes about two weeks. One day can be done:
- laying soil, planting plants, installation of lighting decorations, heating, filter aerator;
- filling the aquarium with tap water;
- turning on the heater and filter aerator.
After that, you need to wait a week for chlorine to evaporate from the water during this time. It is allowed to add various normalizers to the water, which improve the water parameters.
Before using them, you should consult with competent aquarists or sellers who know the parameters of tap water in your area.
After a week, you can run the first, most enduring inhabitants – snails ampoules, tritons, frogs or shrimp. Often the first are ampulyarii. They have a positive effect on the formation of an ecosystem in an aquarium.
Water in a room pond is gaining stability in the order of a month and may become cloudy. Over time, it will clear and be transparent. And only depending on the state of water and the state of health of the ampoule, after about a week you can run inexpensive fish.
More information about the first launch of the aquarium can be found here.
There are some general tips on keeping and breeding fish, but it all depends on the specific inhabitants of your aquarium.
- It is better to buy a rectangular aquarium without panoramic glass, while its length should be greater than the height and width less than the height.
- The volume of the aquarium of about 100 liters will allow you to contain a closed ecosystem (the state of water in the temperature, chemical and biological ranges will be less subject to drastic changes, which will affect the health of the fish), and will also require lower maintenance costs.
- Maintaining a constant temperature will save the fish from many diseases.
- Overfeeding fish can not be, and better to feed once a day. Food should be varied – live, frozen, dry (if you feed constantly alive, the fish begin to get fat and it becomes difficult for them to multiply).
- Change the water in the aquarium weekly with the replacement of up to 30% of the total. Cleaning and siphon bottom in the first month after launch do not need. Depending on the number of fish, pollution of the bottom or chemical indicators of water, these activities should be carried out approximately once every two to four weeks.
- The water filter and aerator in the aquarium should work around the clock.
- Lighting needs to be controlled, otherwise excessive growth of algae or plants will begin. The duration of coverage per day is in the range from 8 to 12 hours.
How to choose an aquarium will tell experts of the program “Cheap and angry” (Channel One):
What to do to breed fish? Where to begin?
How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home? What are the most unpretentious fish?
Do I need seashells in the aquarium? What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish.
Of course, experienced aquarists already know many secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what should newcomers do in this case?
And in today’s article we will dwell in detail not only on what aquarium for beginners is, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.
Aquaria – a very delicate matter. If you buy aquariums for beginners, it is best to focus on their equipment and only then think about starting. After all, everything requires maintenance and care, and the aquarium is no exception to the rules.
In the new aquarium, the water needs to be changed not immediately, but only after several months. And the basic rules for the care of an artificial reservoir – is the replacement of water, but partial. You also need to look for algae.
Do not forget to change the filter, clean the soil. Do not forget to also check the readings of the thermometer.
And remember, you need to disturb the aquatic inhabitants as little as possible. Fish do not like it.
The third rule – conditions for fish: what should they be?
The fourth condition is the right equipment.
The fifth rule – the filter must be washed in the aquarium water
The seventh rule – the launch of a new fish spend slowly!
The tenth rule – aquarism is my hobby!
The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment. After all, this is a real vacation at home.
Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.
In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment.
After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention. After all, probably, very few people want to see that the first experience with the aquarium is bitter and ends with the death of the fish.
After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.
Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!
Basic rules for the selection and arrangement of aquarium for beginners
Where to begin? Of course, it is important to determine the aquarium. And here you cannot just say: “I want this one”.
The choice must be conscious. Often the rule about the connection of the aquarium and fish for beginners becomes fundamental.
And this rule consists in the following: one centimeter of fish length should account for one liter of water. At first glance it seems that the rule is quite simple.
But an experienced aquarist knows that this rule is not bad for calculating the optimal size of the aquarium, but without reservation it cannot be applied. What are these reservations?
First, the length of an aquarium fish is an indicator by which it is impossible to assess and determine the effect of a fish on a closed aquarium system. For example, some have a round body and, consequently, a greater mass, while having the same length as others, smaller in mass.
So it turns out that a home aquarium can comply with the stated principle, but in fact be overpopulated.
Secondly, the rule does not take into account such a characteristic as the surface area of the water in the aquarium. But it is the square that is the real deterrent.
Aquarium residents need oxygen, they emit carbon dioxide while breathing. The amount of oxygen dissolved in water largely determines how many fish can live in it, fully developing. Oxygen comes from the air, carbon dioxide, on the contrary, goes into the air.
From this we can conclude: the larger the surface area of the aquarium, the more intense the replacement of carbon dioxide with oxygen.
Thus, to choose the size of the aquarium, you need to pay attention not only to the length of the body of the fish, but also their weight, the surface area of the aquarium. The following rule is taken into account: one centimeter of the body of a fish, not taking into account the tail, must have at least 12 square centimeters of area.
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When all the preparatory activities behind, it’s time to start acting. The aquarium is put into operation gradually:
- The first day is a launch. Under it understand the installation of the filter and heater after filling the aquarium with water. On the heater immediately set the required temperature. As a rule, it is 25 degrees. Then the filter and heater are turned on;
- second day – plants. Novice aquarists are advised to start using inexpensive hardy plants, for example, vallisneria or rovolnik. They will easily adapt to the new environment and help establish a biological balance in the aquarium. Later they can be replaced by other plants. Biological equilibrium will help restore a special bacterial starter, for example, Sera Bio Nitrivec;
- a week passed – the first inhabitants. After a week, it is already possible to launch the first inhabitants of the aquarium – the first Amano shrimp or Ampularia snails;
- Two weeks passed – fish. Here comes the long-awaited moment, what you have been waiting for: you can run fish into the aquarium.
If you do everything right, if you take into account all the tips and can avoid the most common mistakes, then soon you will be enjoying your aquarium. And it is quite possible that the matter is not limited to only one underwater world.
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Once we have indicated that the most important thing to start with is an aquarium, then we will determine its shape in order to make the choice easier. What are the forms? So:
- usual sizes – used for various small fishes;
- elongated in height – designed to observe the inhabitants of the aquarium. They have a large height, which provides a fairly large area of the front glass. At the same time, such aquariums have a small width.
- elongated – perfect for small schooling fish.
In turn, elongated aquariums or elongated in length can be, for example, hexagonal or even octagonal. If you are going to choose an aquarium of a specific shape, you need to remember that a hexagonal aquarium has a smaller surface area than a regular one.
In general, you should not stop the choice on too wide or narrow aquariums. This ratio does not fit any fish for a comfortable stay.
The choice between beauty and convenience for fish, of course, is yours.
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So, you figure it out with the aquarium. What is missing?
Of course, the fish. Objectively speaking, it seems to many beginners that everything is as simple as possible with regard to the fish: I chose the ones I liked, and that’s all. However, in reality everything is different.
The fact is that fish have an impact on many factors: on the amount of money spent, on decorating, on the arrangement of the habitat, and so on. In addition, the choice of fish today is so great that it is simply difficult to determine the cutest ones.
Tips for beginners about the fish are as follows: strive to acquire representatives of the same group living in the same habitat. This will greatly facilitate care, and at first, this approach will only benefit.
Who can I choose? Beautiful and quite unpretentious are cichlids – perch-shaped fish. They can also share the somobraznyh that will facilitate your maintenance of the aquarium.
The fact is that representatives of catfish clean glasses and stones, pick at the ground, eat up the remnants. And while they are absolutely harmless, and care for him is quite simple.
In short, do not rush to stop the choice on the rarest species of fish. It is better to start with simple varieties.
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Preliminary preparation before the acquisition of small fish
If you have enough space and money to install an aquarium of any acceptable size, as well as the necessary equipment to ensure the life of the fish, you can proceed to the next heading of this article.
If you are cramped in something, then you need to define your desires, given that small aquariums are much more difficult to maintain than large ones, but the latter require more time for maintenance. For example, a 100-liter aquarium will suit a novice aquarist better than a 50-liter aquarium.
A large aquarium is simpler and better kept for several reasons:
1. Water temperature and quality are more stable.
2. The impact of adverse factors on the fish takes longer, which gives the novice aquarist the opportunity to influence them in a timely manner. For example, in winter time, the water heater broke, the cooling process is slower and you can manage to get off and buy a new one before the fish get cold. Or ampularia died from old age in the thickets of a small aquarium, the water became dull, the smell appeared, fish began to die.
In a large aquarium, this process will occur many times slower and you can remove the dead snail from the can without harming the fish.
3. In small aquariums there is little space for free swimming, and, accordingly, not every favorite decor can be placed in it.
4. Ample opportunities for design and decoration.
5. A large aquarium can hold a lot of large fish or a large number of small ones, it allows you to contain various types of fish.
With all the advantages of large aquariums, it is sometimes not possible to install it. Small aquariums are great for apartments, country houses or hostels, as well as for the second floors of private houses.
Large aquariums weigh a lot, they are difficult to transport, take up more space, and in unforeseen circumstances cause more damage.
The biggest advantage of a small aquarium is a financial issue. Aquarium, equipment, scenery, soil, plants, the cost of electricity, the treatment of fish cost much less.
Before acquiring you need to properly assess the benefits of both large and small aquariums. Answer yourself to the question: “What volume of aquarium would you like and is there an opportunity to contain such a volume?” If finances are not important and you do not often move, then the choice is obvious. And if you do not want or can not afford a large aquarium, then a small aquarium is what you need for you.
In any case, the main thing – comfortable conditions for the maintenance of fish.
This topic is hot and is discussed in many forums. There are many types of fish that require minimal maintenance.
This allows you to choose the most suitable pets for each novice aquarist both in a variety of colors and in size. The aquarium can be equipped with beautiful relief and plants, and originality will give a contrast to the color of the fish.
Very often, beginners choose viviparous fish such as swordtails, plazii, guppies, mollies, etc. And this is an excellent choice.
They have a good survival rate, are easy to maintain, are active, have a long lifespan and do not require strict conditions of detention.
There are some types that are ideal for beginners.
Guppy – fishes of the Petsiliev family, with a peace-loving character, calm and unhurried in behavior. Coloring is very diverse and beautiful. To the composition of the water does not impose requirements.
Periodically you need to change the water. Viviparous Easily distinguished by sex.
Males are much smaller, more beautiful and brighter. Omnivores.
Overfeeding is not recommended. Easily tolerate a decrease in water temperature to 15 ° C.
Swordtails – Family Peziliye. Have more than 25 decorative varieties.
In the male, the tail fin has the shape of a sword. Very beautiful fish that does not require special conditions and specific size of the aquarium. Viviparous, easily reproduce.
When the fry appear, the parents should be moved to a free container to avoid eating the children.
Gourami – mobile fish, differing in an interesting spotty color, are curious. To other species of fish and inhabitants are tolerant.
They can breathe not only air dissolved in water, but also oxygen directly on the surface. Black out.
Somics different external originality. Unpretentious, peaceful, eat any food from the bottom. Clean up the remnants of food uneaten by other inhabitants.
Orderlies aquarium. Prefer bottom-living and easy to get along with other species.
Neon – Representatives of the Kharatsin, there are more than 150 species of fish. The most common among beginners are red and blue. The content is simple, undemanding to water.
They love the space, the length of the aquarium should be at least 50 cm. Excellent jumpers, so you need to cover the surface of the water with glass or a lid.
Danio – schooling, bright, beautiful fish. Aquarium is needed with a length of at least 55 cm.
Very mobile and love space. Requires regular water changes and good aeration.
Great jumpers, so you need an aquarium with a lid or glass. Prefer good lighting and clear, clean water.
Barbusses – schooling fish. There is a huge variety of species (more than 200).
In the schooling content of peace. Very active.
It is not recommended to keep them with fish, the tail of which has thread-like or voile forms. They love floating plants.
gold fish – representative of the carp family. It is very popular, but it requires a large volume of aquarium (per adult of at least 35 liters of water).
Prefers clear, clean water and requires its regular substitution. Very voracious, so you need to be careful with feeding.
Prone to overeating.
Antsitrus – somobrazny, herbivore. Very good orderly, nibbles small shoots from the glasses of the aquarium. The oral opening resembles a suction cup.
Males have a large number of mustache. Peaceful.
It is recommended to feed tabletized plant spirulina.
Presents the most common, unpretentious, do not require special care fish that are suitable for beginners. But this does not mean that they do not need to be watched, to know their preferences, the temperature of the water, etc.
Deciding what kind of fish to start first in your tank can be sudden, and can be thought out. Unfortunately, novice aquarists are often guided by the very first impulse, completely without understanding the fish.
And then, instead of joy and pleasure, they get a headache and problems. You need to choose the fish wisely, because their life and your comfort depend on your choice.
Before you go to the store or to the market, study all the available information about the fish that you liked.
What kind of fish is not worth buying for beginners, we have considered here. And the top 10 unusual fish here.
And in order to make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of the best aquarium fish for beginners and briefly described them. All of them are distinguished by unpretentiousness, tolerance to conditions in an aquarium, peaceful nature, livableness and modest size.
We hope that it will help make your choice easier!
Of course, this is an incomplete list, and after thinking it can be increased significantly. But the task was to acquaint beginner aquarists.
Beginners, I recommend first to learn all about the fish that you liked, and choose first of all hardy, easy-care, and peaceful fish that get along well with others in the general aquarium.
And experienced ask for your thoughts about the fish, which they consider simple, in the comments below. I am sure many beginners will thank you for it.