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What equipment is needed for an aquarium

An aquarium with various fish and aquatic plants is an excellent piece of furniture that also plays the role of regulating the emotional state of a person. Special equipment for the aquarium will help create a comfortable environment for its inhabitants, maintain their health and ensure cleanliness of the environment.

The main thing is to choose it correctly.

Before choosing equipment for an aquarium, you need to purchase the tank itself. First of all, it should be suitable in size.

This parameter depends on the number and size of its future inhabitants, as well as on the availability of free space for it. The best option is a deep and wide tank with a volume from 60 to 100 liters, which will be convenient to draw and clean.

The shape can be any: round, rectangular, cylindrical and even octahedral.

Much more attention needs to be paid to aquarium material. It can be acrylic or glass, and both options have advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages of acrylic in cheapness, lightness, strength and no leakage, but to take care of this material is difficult – it is easily scratched, over time it turns yellow, it grows turbid with inappropriate cleaning agents, therefore glass is often preferred because of the greater ease of care.

The aquarium can be put on any flat surface or purchased specifically for it, a waterproof, durable bollard. It is necessary to put soil, sand or pebbles inside the tank.

The fraction should not be smaller than 1.5 mm, so that water does not stagnate in the filler and bacteria do not develop. But even larger than 8 mm soil should not be chosen, since in this case organic matter will be leached. The optimal color of the soil – dark, it will focus on the inhabitants of the aquarium.

It is better not to choose yellow and red sand, so that the iron contained in this filler does not react with water. Also, the stones should not be sharp, so as not to damage the roots of plants and fins of fish.

You can decorate the aquarium and arrange cozy shelters for the inhabitants by decorating the tank. For this fit big shells, artificial castles and caves.

But all this also should not have sharp edges.

Having arranged a cosiness in an aquarium, one can proceed to the selection of equipment ensuring a comfortable life for its inhabitants.

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Some fish breathe only oxygen dissolved in water, others have a labyrinth organ that allows them to use the air in addition. In any case, both species need a sufficient amount of oxygen for a normal life.

It can be provided by planting plants in an aquarium, but for a large number of fish, especially large ones, this measure will not be enough, you will have to purchase equipment that will enrich the water. This includes compressor units of two types:

Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. So, the external ones do not take place in the aquarium, but they are often equipped with a valve to regulate the air flow. Such a device creates an extra noise.

And since oxygen deficiency is particularly acute at night, and you cannot turn off the compressor at this time, noise can interfere with normal sleep.

Domestic ones are usually quieter and consume less electricity, as they are equipped with a device that regulates performance. But they need to be placed in the aquarium itself, and in a small container this will create cramped conditions for the fish and spoil the appearance.

True, the last drawback can be overcome by decorating the compressor with the help of plants.

For a small aquarium it is better to choose an external installation, for a large one – an internal one. But this rule is not strict, and each owner can make a choice at his discretion.

It is much more important to choose the power of the equipment. It is determined by the following rule: for every liter of water should be 0.5 watts.

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In some cases, a carbon dioxide supply system is installed instead of a compressor, but it is needed for plants, not for fish. The unit is a gas cylinder with a volume of 100 ml to 5 liters with a gearbox, valve, hoses and spray. The CO2 produced by it is needed to build tissues of particularly demanding plants that lack carbon dioxide exhaled by the fish.

Also installation allows to regulate a hydrogen indicator of water.

In order for the gas to be sufficient for the plants, but at the same time fish did not suffer from it, the level of supply should not exceed 30 mg / l. But usually such a large number is not required, it is enough to maintain CO 2 at a level of 3-5 mg / l.

If plants need a carbon dioxide supply, they will additionally need to provide regular fertilizer and suitable lighting. But such specific care and equipment are not required in all aquariums.

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Water quality is very important for the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium. Pure liquid will prolong their life, and polluted will cause various diseases.

Of course, the dwellings of fish and plants need to be carefully looked after: regularly change the water and wash the walls and internal contents, but this is not always enough, so special filtration compressors come to the rescue.

They are also internal and external, but the rules for their choice differ from those devices that generate oxygen. External filtration compressors are a complex system of a canister with a filler attached to the walls of the container and tubes that go inside.

Water is pumped through the pump. Filtering fillers are presented in large quantities, so this equipment is useful for large aquariums with a volume of 150 liters.

In a small tank, this option cannot be used, because it is bulky and creates a strong flow of water.

Internal systems are much more compact and economical, they are a plastic container with the necessary filling. Water is pumped through with a pump and filtered through ceramic filler or special sponges.

The system copes well with its task in the aquarium from 20 to 200 liters. It can also be installed in a large tank for additional cleaning.

Buying one of the installations in the store, you should pay attention to the presence of replacement filters in the kit and the possibility of their additional purchase.

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The vast majority of aquarium fish with bright colors and lush fins, which are so appreciated aesthetically, come from the tropics. For normal life, they need warm water, often in a certain temperature range.

To do this, there are special heaters that maintain the temperature of the water with an accuracy of a given degree. Devices are of three types:

  • bottom, buried in the ground and beneficial effects on vegetation;
  • external flow, installed outside the aquarium;
  • submersible, immersed in water at a certain depth.

The main thing is to choose equipment of suitable power, usually for a capacity of 100 liters, an installation of no more than 100 watts is suitable.

It is better to acquire a quality water heater at once, which can last for a long time. Cheaper options are often subject to breakdowns, they either completely fail, or make the water too hot or cold.

It can cost pets a lot, so you need to purchase a thermometer to monitor the heater. The most convenient option is a strip glued to the wall of the aquarium with a mercury level.

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Not all fish owners seek to acquire tropical inhabitants; there are also lovers of cold-water species who feel well at a temperature of 16-18 degrees Celsius. In such cases, you need not a heater, but a refrigerator that supports conditions that are comfortable for the inhabitants of the aquarium. The principle of its operation is the same as for the heater.

The unit cools the water to a predetermined value and then keeps the temperature constant. To do this, the device must be reliable thermostat.

The system does not have to make the water very cold, as is required for freshwater species. Even more often, it is set for expensive sea fish, generally heat-loving, but not surviving at temperatures above 29 degrees.

For a harmonious look in the aquarium you need to colonize not only fish, but also live plants. But aquatic plants no less ground need light for life, and placing an aquarium on a windowsill is inconvenient and dangerous, so the best option would be to select a lamp for artificial lighting.

Usually they are embedded in the lid of the aquarium and are included as needed. In luminaires can stand as fluorescent sources, and incandescent lamps.

Preference should be given to the first option, because although it is more expensive, it gives better and brighter lighting, does not heat the water and does not initiate the growth of algae, more economically consumes electricity. The power of the light source must be such that for every liter of water accounted for at least 0.5 W, when choosing a color temperature need to focus on the features of the aquarium:

  • 5500 to 6500K usually suitable for freshwater inhabitants;
  • from 10,000 to 2000K – for marine.

There are lamps and over 20,000 K, but they are usually not used for home aquariums.

Of course, a full-fledged expensive equipment for the aquarium is not always necessary, and the tank itself can be replaced with a completely small capacity or even an ordinary can. But in this version it will turn out to contain a very small number of fish.

They should withstand temperature changes well and generally be very unpretentious in conditions.

In this case, instead of installing an oxygen generator, you will have to plant more plants in the aquarium, the oxygen they produce should be enough for one or two people.

In the absence of a filtration system, it will often be necessary to replace some of the water with fresh water and add special pet shop products to it for additional purification. Pets will need to choose from those that are adapted to life in cool water, as this will suit the variety of goldfish.

And instead of lighting built into the cover, it will be possible to place an aquarium under a table lamp, since plants playing the role of an oxygen source will not be able to function normally without light.

Even if the aquarium will be placed in the bank, and additional equipment is not needed, accessories for the care of its inhabitants are still needed. The owner should have such a set:

  • scraper for cleaning the walls of the tank, according to reviews the most convenient magnetic;
  • hose and bucket for pumping water from a large vessel;
  • nets of different sizes for temporary relocation of fish to another tank, while their permanent habitat is being cleaned;
  • a set of tweezers and small scissors for the care of plants;
  • blade to work with the ground.

Also, for a complete cleaning will need household chemicals. It must be chosen on the basis of the material from which the aquarium is made.

If this glass, any means are suitable, the main thing is to thoroughly rinse the surface after use, otherwise traces of chemistry will negatively affect the health of the fish. Acrylic aquarium can not be cleaned with conventional means, otherwise the walls will become turbid, it requires special preparations.

That’s all that is required for proper care of fish and plants. It does not make sense to buy all devices in a row, as the choice of aquarium and aquarium equipment directly depends on its future inhabitants.

At the same time, you can purchase additional devices, such as automatic feeders, LED lighting or any other devices designed to facilitate maintenance and decorate the aquarium.

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