maintenance, care, compatibility
Sword-bearer of aquarium fish: content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review
Swordsmen know everything, even those who have never encountered the aquarium world. The Sword bearers gained such fame due to their wide distribution (one can say that they were part of the set of every young aquarist of the former USSR), as well as thanks to a special sign – the tail fin in the form of a sword.
Actually, it was for this tail that the Swordtails got their name.
Homeland Sword – Central America (South Mexico and Guatemala). They live in reservoirs with stagnant and slowly running water, thickly overgrown with various aquatic plants.
Swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) belong to the family of fish. Xiphophorus helleri is translated from Greek as “xiphos” – the sword, “phoros” – carry.
The prefix “Helleri” was assigned to the sword bearers by the name of the German naturalist Karl Bartholomeus Heller, who first caught these fish in the Mexican lakes and successfully transported to Europe.
In 1848, these fish were first described by Dr. Johann Jacob Heckel – preparator of the Museum of Natural Sciences at the Imperial Natural History Study of the Museum of Natural Sciences in Vienna.
The body of the fish is elongated and compressed from the sides. The swordtail’s mouth is turned up and adapted for taking food from the surface of the water.
Fish can reach a size of 10 cm (without a sword). Females are somewhat larger than males; they are similar in shape to all other petilium.
In addition to the presence of a “sword” on the lower edge of the caudal fin, the male has gonopodia, an anal fin transformed into the sexual organ.
Class: Ray fish
Conditions in the aquarium:
Water temperature: 22 – 26 ° C.
(tolerates a temporary decrease in temperature up to 15 ° С)
Ph acidity: 7.0 – 7.5.
Stiffness dH: 6-20 °
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%
The complexity of the content: easy
Swordtails are not aggressive. They are compatible with almost all small peaceful fish.
Among the best neighbors are tetras, minors, terntions, danios, all fish, etc. They are compatible with almost all bottom fish: corridors, akantoftalmusy, platidorus, ancistrus, bag-tailed catfish, etc.
Get along well with peaceful and not large cichlids, for example, with scalars.
Sword-bearers are not compatible with aggressive and large fish that will hunt them, for example with cichlids (Akara, astronotus, diamond chichasomes, etc.). In addition, it is not recommended to push them to the “veil” fish, because they are slow and swordtails can “pinch” them for fluttering fins.
Males of the Sword show some intolerance and aggression towards each other. Cases of males fights were noted up to causing lethal damage to each other. Therefore, in one aquarium should contain only one male, or several at once (but not a couple!), Plus the same or more females.
In this case, the intraspecific aggressiveness of the fish is markedly reduced. There are a lot of local conflicts in this case, but their heat is relatively low, and the absolute winner, who would then no longer give anyone a pass, would not be revealed.
See article compatibility of aquarium fish.
Life swordtails, by the aquarium standards, medium-long. With good conditions, they can live up to 5 years.
Find out how much other fish live HERE!
Many novice aquarists contain swordtails in small aquariums. However, this is not entirely correct. In fact, the swordtails – it is quite large fish.
And taking into account the fact that it is recommended to hold swordsmen in proportion 1 male / 2 or more females, the minimum size of an aquarium for them should be from 50 liters per harem family. Aquarium for the Sword should be wide.
About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
Requirements for the care and conditions of the swordtails
The Swordtails do not need any special conditions. In fact, the observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, do not forget that:
1. Swordtails necessarily need aeration and filtration, a weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. It is worth noting that these fish do not need a lot of oxygen, and too frequent change (replacement) of aquarium water is not so useful for them as for other types of aquarium fish.
Therefore, if you change the water less often, for example, once every 14 days, and not at 7, nothing terrible will happen.
2. The aquarium must be covered with a lid, because the fish are nimble, can jump out and die.
3. Like many fish, swordtails feel comfortable among the living vegetation. As aquarian plants for them are recommended to use valisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne, riccia, duckweed and other plants.
Creating thickets of plants imitates the natural habitat of fish.
4. At registration of an aquarium it is necessary to organize in it an open space for swimming. Swordtails are excellent swimmers.
Shelters of the Sword are absolutely not needed.
Breeding and breeding of the Swordsmen is absolutely simple. It is similar to the reproduction of guppies and other live-beetles.
And, one might say, actually happens on its own.
Sexual maturity of the Sword comes at the age of 5-6 months. For breeding (and for their own comfort) it is recommended to keep the fish in the proportion of one male to three females.
In the process of “courtship” for the female, the male performs a kind of mating dance – shuttle movements back and forth.
Fertilization of ripe eggs occurs inside the female. This process can take several days.
An interesting feature is that the once fertilized female of the swordtail can produce offspring several more times, even in the absence of a male.
The duration of gestation of the female is 4-6 weeks. This period depends on the parameters of the aquarium water, temperature, lighting and feeding.
A pregnant female has a full belly and has a “black spot of pregnancy” under the tail. It is believed that a few hours before the “birth” the female’s stomach becomes “square”, the female begins to move more actively, “toss” up and down along the aquarium glass.
At one time, the female sweeps from 15 to 100 or more fry. Spawning occurs, as a rule, in the morning.
With abundant nutrition and water temperature 26-27 ° C, childbirth can occur monthly.
Perhaps the most important rule that must be observed when breeding swordsmen is a concern for the survival of young. Unfortunately, the producers eat their own offspring, and given the fact that the fry of the Swordtails are quite large in size and bright in color, this process simply turns into extermination. In nature, the Swordtails never see their offspring, because fry immediately blows over.
In an aquarium, parents take fry for food.
To save offspring aquarium densely planted aquarium plants. Plants are located at the bottom of the aquarium, in the water column and especially densely on the surface.
Thus, juveniles are provided with shelters “from evil parents” and the majority of fry survive.
Also, for the safety of offspring, special spouts can be used, which are designed according to the funnel type – the female remains in the funnel, and the swept fry falls out of the funnel into the spawning aquarium. Thus, the absence of contact of the producer and the young is initially ensured.
The third option for preserving offspring is the jigging of producers immediately after spawning. This option is simple, but requires attentiveness and timeliness from the aquarist.
Photo of a pregnant female swordtail, or rather born out
Contain Swordsmanin in aquariums it is easy enough because of their unpretentiousness to the composition and volume of water. One pair must be at least 6 liters of water.
Aquarium needs a long, with a lid (can jump out of the water).
Optimum water parameters: temperature 22-24 ° С, dH 5-20 °, pH 7.0-8.0. Requires strong aeration and filtration.
Once a week it is necessary to replace water by 1/3 of the volume. It is recommended to add sea or table salt to water: 1 tbsp. 10 liters of water.
Thick thickets of small-leaved plants (for example, notched elodea, cabomba, wallisneria) are perfect for an aquarium with swordtails. But free space for swimming fish must also be present.
On the surface of the water, you can let ricci.
As neighbors fit any peaceful fish. There are conflicts in the group between males of swordtails, so it is necessary that there are more females than males.
In this case, the males must be either one or more than three individuals – aggression is sprayed, and not directed directly at each other between the two males.
Swordtails belong to the family of viviparous. The female at a time is able to give life from 15 to 100 fry, and even more. The number of juveniles born into the world depends on the age and size of the mother, as well as on the conditions of her life.
For successful breeding, the pregnant female is deposited in a separate aquarium before birth. So that the fry born to avoid the teeth of an adult female, small-leaved aquatic plants should also be placed there to create life-saving algae thickets in a small pond where it is so good to hide from danger.
Breeding will not require any special care from the aquarist.
It will be enough just to isolate the female for the time of childbirth from the rest of the aquarium, and after the childbirth return it to the familiar environment, leaving the sword children to develop on their own. By the time of birth, fry are completely formed for the beginning of independent life.
As soon as they were born, they immediately begin to tirelessly master the space of the aquarium and actively feed. Kids are almost omnivorous, but it is preferable to give them daphnia and cyclops.
With proper feeding, the fry grow rapidly, by 3-4 months they already acquire a “sword”, and puberty occurs in 4-6 months.
COMPATIBILITY OF AQUARIUM FISHES
Swordtails are not aggressive, peaceful fish. They are compatible with all similar fish: tetras, neons, minors, terntions, danios, all petilium fish: guppies (can bite), mollies, etc.
They are compatible with almost all aquarium catfish – corridoratus (speckled catfish), akantoftalmusy, platidor, antsistrusy, baggy-tailed catfish, etc. Moreover, the swordtails get along very well with peaceful and not large cichlids, for example, with scalars.
It is not recommended to push them to the “veil” fish – they are slow and swordtails can “pinch” them for beautiful, large fins. Not compatible with aggressive and large fish, for example, cichlids: Akara, astronotus, diamond tsikhlazomy
DISEASES OF SURFACERS
Swordtails belong to the family of viviparous, carp-toothed. The body is elongated, flattened laterally.
The natural background color of the males is light brownish-olive, on the back with a green tint. A red two-millimeter strip runs along the sides, and two narrower red stripes below and above it.
The long lower ray of the tail fin (sword) has a black clear edging. The color of the female is much paler, the body with a silvery sheen, the middle of the body is occupied by a wide strip, and below and above this strip pass two more narrow strips 0.5 mm wide.
As a result of breeding, the Sword-bearers have not only various forms of fins, but also different colors of their body colors: black, red, olive, orange, yellow, and their combinations (for example, yellow body and black fins). Sword-bearers with two swords are also drawn at the bottom and the top of the tail.
The body of a male (without a sword) can grow up to 8 cm, and females up to 12 cm.
Swordtails live up to three to five years.
HUPPY ENDLER CONTENTS REPRODUCTION PHOTO COMPATIBILITY DESCRIPTION VIDEO.
Aquarium fish swordtails: reproduction and maintenance
Swordtails do not require any thorough care. This way they are easy to maintain. They do not need a special composition or a certain amount of water, they withstand a good lowering of the temperature (the optimum water temperature for them is 23-25 ° C).
Water hardness also does not become a problem for these fish – 8-25. Acidity is acceptable within 7-8.
To arrange the aquarium, you first need to find out what form it will be. It is better to take a rectangular aquarium without any decorations, which only interfere.
As for the volume, then for two representatives of this species or fish of similar size, an average of 8–10 liters of water is needed, that is, 10–15 individuals per capacity of 50 liters.
Install the aquarium should be closer to the window, because the light is needed and the fish themselves, and plants. But putting it on the windowsill is a bad idea, because the sun or the heat of the battery will overheat the water and it will bloom.
The surface must be flat, otherwise the walls of the aquarium may burst (if this happened, the article “Repair the aquarium at home” will help to correct the situation).
It is better when there are plants in the tank, then you can not be afraid to leave your pets without food in rare cases. Aquarium plants should be selected as thick as possible so that the fry can hide from more adult individuals.
But there should be a space for the free movement of fish. To do this, fit, gloss and glossy cabomba.
At least once a week, it is recommended to replace 20-30% of the aquarium water with clean water, and you can also add sea salt to it.
As the soil for the aquarium, you can take the usual pebbles. Aeration of water is desirable, but not necessary, at a low density of fish population.
As for food, here too the swordtails are universal – any food, live or dry, is suitable for them. It is recommended not to forget about vegetable types of feed, and to use them in addition to algae.
For this fit variety of lettuce, spinach or oatmeal.
Having decided to start these fish, you need to remember the so-called hierarchy, and therefore it is better to place more females in one aquarium. There will be enough males and a few, preferably 3-4, so that between them there is no particular competition.
You should always cover the aquarium with something from above, as the swordtails are very nimble and like to jump out of it.
Aquarium fish swordtails: compatibility with other species
Fry are born in the morning time of the day, their size on average – 10 mm in length. Their body is formed, translucent with bright hues, yolk sac is visible, the contents of which ended in prenatal development.
After they calm down at the bottom, they will begin to swim erratically. Swordsman fry adapt well to the conditions of life in an aquarium, the first days of life they keep in the flock, and swim in the upper layers of water.
They prefer to hide in plants, while frightened, who where.
Watch a video on how to keep fry.
Caring for the flesh of the swordtails can bring some surprises. The fact is that the number of males and females in brood depends on the water temperature. At low temperatures, more females appear, at high temperatures – males.
The water in which the fry live should be replaced once a week, 25% of the total. Kids are sensitive to environmental pollution.
It is necessary to clean the water using an internal filter, and saturate the water with oxygen using a compressor.
Newborn fry can be fed with nauplii of Artemia, Cyclops nauplii, infusoria, a microworm, nematodes, rotifers and other live food. At the age of 1 month, the fry can be fed with chopped tubule, branded feed for the fry of viviparous fish, hard-boiled boiled egg yolk. Fry recommended to feed 2-3 times a day in small portions, the entire feed should be ground into powder.
When the diet is enriched with protein, they grow faster, for older fry care will be easier.
If the rules of feeding were observed, then the little swordtails by age will grow three months to the size of 5-6 cm. At this time, the young males will have the first rays on the tail fin, which will resemble a sword. To avoid inbreeding and premature mating, babies should be sorted into separate aquariums, males separately from females.
They can become sexually mature in 6-8 months, but this depends on the water temperature. Some become sexually mature at three months.
During puberty, the anal fin of males turns into a cone-shaped gonopodia, and in females it becomes rounded.
If in the general aquarium there live different types of swordtails, they can interbreed with each other, bringing fry with a beautiful appearance. The exception is the selection forms of these fish, which must be protected from such crossing.
An interesting fact is that there are no sex chromosomes in the sword, so with age the female can become a male, and vice versa.
The allowable temperature for keeping fry in a spawning game is 22-26 ° C, however, as they mature, changes may occur. With a shortage of individuals, male or female, the Swordtails try to maintain their appearance.
If the female and the male (formerly female) intersect, their calves will be female.
How to care for swordfish fish :: aquarium swordfish fish :: Aquarium fish
The swordfish aquarium fish belongs to the order of carnelians, petsilid family. In nature, such fish can be found in the waters of Guatemala, Central America, Mexico and Honduras.
Before you get the swordtails for your aquarium, you need to familiarize yourself with the rules of their maintenance and nutrition.
The question “opened a pet store. Business is not going. What to do? “- 2 answers
The body length of males reaches 8 centimeters, females – 12 centimeters, it all depends on the conditions of the Sword. A characteristic feature of the Sword is a peculiar process on the lower part of the caudal fin, which resembles a sword in appearance.
Often there are hybrids with a pair of swords, as well as an enlarged dorsal fin. Females have a less bright color.
The anal fin of the male is transformed into gonopodia – the genital for reproduction. Swordtails peacefully relate to other species of fish, get along well with them in the same aquarium.
Female swordsmen should be more than males. A strong male often pursues a weaker one.
Swordtails are not demanding of conditions. The most optimal water temperature in the aquarium is 24-26 degrees.
Fish easily tolerates a temporary decrease in water temperature to 16 degrees. Stiffness can vary in a large range – 8-25 dH, but it is recommended to maintain the acidity in the range of 7-8 pH.
At least once a week, replace one-third of the volume of water in the aquarium, it is advisable to periodically produce enrichment of water with oxygen.
Plant the aquarium with small-leaved plants that form dense thickets (Toothed elodiea, Cabomba or Vallisneria). Fry will have the opportunity to hide in them from adult fish. Let the moss – richchia, which forms the picturesque islands, open on the surface of the water.
Swordtails – very active fish, they sometimes so frolic that they can jump out of the aquarium. To avoid this, cover the aquarium with a lid.
The life of the Sword, however, like other species of fish, depends on proper and complete nutrition. They are completely unpretentious in food. The optimal diet should include plant and live food: pipe, artemia, daphnia, spinach, algae, various varieties of lettuce, bloodworm, cyclop, mosquito larvae, crushed oatmeal, peas and nettle.
You can use any food, either live or canned, dry or frozen.
If you need to go on vacation or a business trip, you do not need to worry, as the aquarium swordtails easily tolerate the lack of food for one to two weeks without harming their health. Fish feed on various algal fouling that forms on aquarium glass or plant leaves.
Swordtails belong to the group of viviparous, they give birth to fully formed and large fry. Bearing lasts about forty days, before giving birth, the female’s abdomen increases, becomes square.
Place the female in a separate container with a large number of small-leaved plants. After birth, return it back to the general aquarium.
Starter feed for fry: artemia, nematodes, chopped tubule, egg yolk, industrial feed.
What to do if the breeding of the Swordsmen occurred in the general aquarium?
In this case, first of all, the fry should be immediately neatly taken with a small net net, removed and moved to a separate reservoir.
Many wildlife lovers If this is not done, then the kids can become food for other inhabitants of the aquarium. The question is how the fish of the Swordsman breed in the general aquarium, because then the newborn babies are at serious risk.In this case, you just need to place in the pond plants, forming dense thickets, in which the fry could easily hide from predators.
These may be kabomba, elodey, valisneria, etc. seaweed. At the same time, green thickets should alternate with free space in order for the rest of the fish to have enough free space for swimming.
The most interesting fact, in the breeding of the Sword, is that they are able to interbreed with each other, regardless of the species, thereby generating a new population of unique fish. Therefore, who knows, maybe you are lucky to become the owner of a unique and amazing type of Sword.